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People with a History: An Online Guide to Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Trans* History

Site Maintainer: Paul Halsall
©1997


Contents:

Section IV: Europe Since World War I

Go to the following pages for other parts of People with a History


Chapter 12: The German Gay Rights Movement

Discussions:

Texts:

  • Magnus Hirschfeld (1868-1935):
  • Sigmund Freud: Letter to a Mother
    Although the psychoanalytic movement in the US became a major victimizer of homosexuals [through its dedication to the notion of ego-normality], Freud himself, as in this letter to the mother of a homosexual, was much more approving.

Websites:

  • Magnus Hirschfeld Exhibit [At Internet Archive]
  • Schwules Museum Berlin/Akademie der Künste [The Gay Museum/The Academy of Arts] Goodbye to Berlin? HUNDERT JAHRE SCHWULENBEWEGUNG - 100 YEARS OF GAY LIBERATION - CENTENAIRE DU MOUVEMENT GAI [At Internet Archive, from www.adk.de]
    An exhibition celebrating the one hundredth anniversary of the founding of the TheWissenschaftliche-humanitäre Komitee (Scientific Humanitarian Committee) in May 1897 in Berlin. There are English and German versions of the site.

Back to Contents


Chapter 13: The Nazis and the Gays

At one time it was fashionable to claim that the Nazis accepted homosexuality. Partly this was a way to slur the Nazis [as if they need slurring], and partly a reflection of the suppressed homoeroticism of Nazi visual expression. What was overlooked until the 1970s, and the publication of a series of articles by James Steakley in the Toronto Body Politic (quite possibly the best bi-weekly ever produced by the modern gay community), was that the Nazis had directed laws, prisons, and the full panoply of the state against homosexuals; had deliberately destroyed the sex research institute set up by Magnus Hirschfeld; and added homosexuals to the list of those to be eliminated. In other words the world managed to "forget" the holocaust of homosexuals.

In recent years this forgetting has been overcome. Thanks to the efforts of Steakley, Richard Plant and Burchhard Jellonek, as well as the publication by Hans Heger [pseud.] of his memoirs, and the play Bent by Martin Shaw, the suffering of gays under the Third Reich has become well known. Now the Holocaust Museum in Washington DC makes sure to explicate the issues involved.

The total number of gays killed seems to have been about 15,000 [figures from Jellonek], mostly by being worked to death. Gays were not sent as gays to extermination camps. This is massively smaller than the devastation visited on Jewish, Gypsy and Serbian populations. But documenting the Nazi attacks on homosexuals is not part of a "catch-up" game with Jews, or other groups. It is rather an exposing of the possible effects of dehumanizing any group.

Recently some members of the American Religious Right [a diverse group that should no more be demonized than any other], have taken to denying the gay holocaust, and in fact asserting that the Nazi part was essentially homosexual. This is nonsense, and not one serious historian countenances the charge. Nevertheless the book - The Pink Swastika - which makes this charge has been subjected to a line by line refutation, available via here.

Discussions:

  • James Steakley: Homosexuals and the Third Reich, The Body Politic 11, January/February 1974,
    This was the first important article to discuss the Nazi attack on gays.
  • Christine Mueller: Refutation of Radical Right claims Connecting Gays and Nazis, [At Internet Archive, from Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual Catholic Handbook]
  • Night of the Long Knives. june 30, 1934, [At HistoryPlace]
    An account of Hitler's attack ond, and removal of Roehm, the SA leader who was homosexual.
  • See also the Table of Contents and homophobic introduction to the book The Pink Swastika discussed by Professor Mueller. . [At Internet Archive, from Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual Catholic Handbook]
  • Scott Lively/Kevin Abrams: The Pink Swastika [At Abiding Truth]
    This is an example of a Radical Religious Right to claim that that Nazi party was "homosexual". The book is a lie, but, since truth is not afraid, I provide an online link to it. A condensed version is also available [At Leader U]
  • Eugene Narrett: THE HIDDEN HISTORY OF NAZISM, from The Wanderer, August 8, 1996
    An example of the way the Lively/Abrams book is popularized by the Radical Religious Reich press. This is from the extreme right ring Catholic paper The Wanderer, owned by Paul Weyrich. This article is classcic case of Weyrich's evil. It describes the deaths by working to death of circa 6000 gay men, and then seeks to account for the Nazi's "leniency" by arguing that leading Nazis were gay. A truly sick approach. Fortunately only imbeciles read the Wanderer.
  • Citizens Allied for Civic Action (CAFCA): THE ANNOTATED PINK SWASTIKA[At Geocities],
    Extensive [600 Kbyte] point by point refutation of the Lively/Abrams book. The effort is worthwhile, but it should be noted that no serious historian takes the Lively/Abrams book seriously as anything other than evidence about the modern American far right [a phenomenon of serious historical interest.]

Texts:

Websites:

Back to Contents


Chapter 14: Post-WW I Europe to 1990

Discussions: Entire Period

Discussions: InterWar Years

Discussions: Entire Period since WWII

  • Edmund White: on Jean Genet: Once a Sodomite: Twice a Philosopher, Harvard Gay and Lesbian Review 3:1 (Winter 1996) [PDF file] [At Harvard Gay and Lesbian Review]
  • Mark Finch: Victim Victorious?, City Limits (London), November 1985, [At Planet Out]
    Reviews the history of gay film in the UK.

Discussions: 1950s

Discussions: 1960s

  • None as yet.

Discussions: Gay Rights Movement

  • Andrew Hodges and David Hutter, With Downcast Gays, (1974) [At Outgay.co.uk]
    Full text of an important analysis of the oppression of lesbians and gays.
  • Bob Mellors - Obituary, April 13 1996, The Guardian [At Internet Archive, from Guardian site]
    A founding Member London GLF. Murdered.

Discussions: Gay Rights Movement Since Origins

Discussions: 1970s

  • None as yet.

Discussions: 1980s

  • Hart Murphy: FOUCAULT'S VIRTUAL PASSION [At Internet Archive, from www.ctheory.com]
    Review of James Miller, The Passion of Michel Foucault. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1993. Pb: Anchor Doubleday, 1994.

Discussions: 1990s

Texts:

Texts: Literary

Websites:

Back to Contents


Chapter 15: The Lesbian and Gay Movement in Europe

Discussions:

Texts

  • Gay Liberation Front: Manifesto (London, 1971, as revised 1979)
    Classic example of Gay Liberationist analysis. Parts of it still read as provocative, other parts seem dated - for instance its attack on "butch/femme" culture!
  • James Kirkup: The Love That Dares. [At Internet Archive, from Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual Catholic Handbook]
    This poem, published in Gay News was [and is] banned in Britain under the use of an ancient blasphemous libel law. The banning was fought, unsuccessfully, all the way to the European Court of Human Rights. Recently attempts have been made to prosecute British websites which link to the American location of this poem, where it is protected by the First Amendment (Thank you Mr. Madison!)..
  • The Alsop Review: Background Information on the Love That Dares [At Hooked.net]
    This page contains British press reports of the closing down of the LGCM website, and some obituaries of Denis Lemon, the editor of Gay News and chief defendant. It also links to the poem and to a picture of Kirkup.
  • Legal Age of Consent Around the World [At Age of Consent.com]

Websites:

  • OutRage
    UK activist group information at Peter Tatchell's web site, with documentation of past and current LGBT issues in the UK.

Back to Contents


Chapter 16: Europe: Current Politics and Strategies

Discussions:

Texts:

Websites:

  • International Lesbian and Gay Human Rights Commission
  • IGLHRC On-line Resources
    A really valuable list of centralized information web sites around the world. Many national groups maintain resource guides in English as well as their national languages.
  • Archive of International Lesbian and Gay Press Stories, by Rex Wockner.
    All of Wockner's stories since 1994, searchable in a variety of ways.
    "The Gai Pied ARCHIVES give you an unprecedented access to the complete set of Gai Pied Hebdo back numbers. At a click the summaries, the articles and interviews, etc. You can research by volume number, date and even by searching words in the fully indexed articles.
  • SETA, the Finnish organization of sexual equality. [In English]

Back to Contents


© 1997, Paul Halsall, halsall@murray.fordham.edu [a picture!]
Update: 4/11/2007
Note: I read all mail, and keep much of it, but I will not be able to reply to all notes.