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Ancient History


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Studying History Human Origins Mesopotamia Egypt Persia Israel Greece Hellenistic World Rome Late Antiquity Christian Origins
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Internet Ancient History Sourcebook

Important: New Structure for the Ancient History Sourcebook

Since January 24 1999, the Internet Ancient History Sourcebook has been completely reorganized. Each of the main sections had became too large  to maintain as one file. To see the new arrangement go to the Main Index.

The three older index files were called  Ancient Near East (asbook1.html)| Greece (asbook2.html)|  Rome (asbook3.html). All remained available until October 2000, but have now been removed. Too many links had gone bad, and as such the pages generated too many complaints about bad links, even though there was indication that they were no longer being updated and updated linkes were available within the new structure.

For all texts it is now necessary to use the new structure.

 

Studying Ancient History

  • Introduction: Using Primary Sources
  • Nature of Historiography
  • Other Sources of Information on Ancient History
    • General Guides to Net Texts [link to texts at other sites.]
    • General Etext Projects [sites with texts online.]
    • Egypt/ANE
    • Greece
    • Rome
    • Religion
    • Philosophy
  • Adding More Texts
  • Other Ancient World Resource Projects

Human Origins

  • Human Origins
  • Archeology
  • Hunter-Gatherering Societies
  • The Beginnings of Agricultural Societies
    • Modern Perspectives on the Agricultural Revolution
    • Origins of Patriarchy

The Ancient Near East

Mesopotamia

  • Ancient Near East
  • Sumeria (c. 3100-c. 2000 BCE)
    • The Epic of Gilgamesh
    • Sumerian Language
    • Art
    • Connections with India
  • Akkadia (c.2350-2200 BCE)
  • Babylonia (c.2000-1600 BCE)
    • Code of Hammarabi
    • Cities
    • Creation Myths
    • Religion
  • Kassites and Hittites (c.1600-717 BCE)
    • Kassites
    • Hittites
    • Hittite Texts
    • Material Culture
  • Assyria (c.1350- 612 BCE)
  • Chaldea/Neo-Babylonia (612-539 BCE)
  • Syrian Cities: Ebla, Ugarit, Emar
  • Phoenicia 950 BCE on
  • Carthage: The Punic Empire
  • ANE Arts and Architecture
  • ANE Mathematics and Astronomy
  • Gender and Sexuality
  • Modern Perspectives on Mesopotamia
  • Common Issues: Mesopotamian/Egyptian/Hebrew/Greek History
    • Centuries of Darkness?

Egypt

  • General
    • Maps
    • Chronologies
    • Modern Egyptology
  • The Old Kingdom (2705-2213 BCE) [Dynasties 3-8]
  • The Middle Kingdom (1991-1668 BCE) [Dynasties 12-13]
  • The New Kingdom (1570-1070 BCE) [Dynasties 18-20]
  • Akhnaten [Amenhotep IV](r. 1363-1347 BCE)
  • Post Imperial Egypt (1070-332 BCE) [Dynasties 21-31]
  • Religion
    • Origin Myths
    • The Memphite Theology
    • Gods and Goddesses
    • Isis and Osiris
    • Death and Resurrection
  • Art and Architecture
  • Literature
  • Music
  • Everyday Life
  • Mathematics
  • Gender and Sexuality
  • Nubia
  • Libya and Western North Africa
  • Modern Perspectives on Egypt
    • Black Athena Debate

Persia

  • Persia: General
  • The Persian State: Acheamenids (560-330 BCE)
  • The Persian State: Parthia and Arcsacids (247 BCE-226 CE)
  • The Persian State: Sassanids (224-636 CE)
  • Persian Religions
  • Art and Architecture
  • Modern Perspectives on Ancient Iran

Israel

  • People of Israel
  • Pre-Israelite Canaan/Palestine/Syria
  • The Bible as a Source
    • The Documentary Hypothesis
  • Ethnogenesis
    • Later Stories
  • Moses and Monotheism
  • Conquest of the Land (1250-1000 BCE?)
    • The Judges (c.1200-1050 BCE)
  • The National Monarchy (c.1020-586 BCE)
    • David (1000-961 BCE)
    • Saul (c.1020-1000 BCE), 1 Samuel 8
    • Solomon (961-922 BCE)
    • Israel and Judah (922-586 BCE)
  • The Exile (587-538 BCE)
  • The Prophets (750-550 BCE)
  • Mythological Foundations
    • Creation
    • The Origin of Language
    • The Problem of Evil
    • The Problem of Life
    • Sex
  • Hellenistic Judaisms: Diasporas
    • The Macabbees and After
    • Jews in the Diaspora
    • Conflict with Rome
  • Hellenistic Judaism: Religious Development
    • The Emergence of Judaism
      • The Invention of the Synagogue
      • Samaritans
    • Editing of the Bible
    • The Septuagint (?made under Ptolemy II r. 283-246 BCE)
    • Philo Judaeus (c.30 BCE-45 CE):
    • Pharisees
    • Sadducees
    • Zealots
    • Essenes
    • The Qumran Sect
      • The Dead Sea Scrolls
    • Proselytism
  • Rabbinic Judaism
    • The Talmud
  • Gender and Judaism
  • Modern Perspectives on Ancient Israel

Greek Civilizations

Greece

  • General
  • Greece: Major Historians: Complete Texts
    • Herodotus (c.490-c.425 BCE)
    • Thucydides (c.460/455-c.399 BCE)
    • Xenophon (c.428-c.354 BCE)
    • Aristotle (384-323 BCE)
    • Plutarch (c.46-c.120 CE)
    • Pausanias (fl.c.160 CE)
  • Crete
  • Mycenae
  • Archaic Greece
    • Homer (c.8th Cent. BCE)
    • Hesiod (c.700 BCE)
    • Later Historians
    • Greek Colonization
  • The Persian Wars (449-479 BCE)
  • The Rise of the Polis
  • The Age of Tyranny
  • Athenian Democracy
  • Sparta
  • The Peloponnesian War (431-404 BCE) and After
  • The Fourth Century: Competing Hegemonies
  • Philip II of Macedon (r. 339-336 BCE)
  • Religion and Myth
    • The Olympian Religion
    • Chthonic and Mystery Cults
    • Greek Conceptions of Death and Immortality
  • Philosophy
    • PreSocratics
      • Materialists
      • Pythagoreanism
      • Eleatic School
      • Sophists
      • Atomists
    • Socrates (469-399 BCE)
    • Plato (427-347 BCE)
    • Aristotle (384-323 BCE)
  • Literature
  • Literature: Theatre
    • Theatre Practice
    • Drama Theory
    • Aeschylus (525-456 BCE)
    • Sophocles (496-405/6 BCE)
    • Euripides (c.485-406 BCE)
    • Aristophanes (c.445-c.385 BCE)
    • Menander (342/1-293/89 BCE)
  • Art
  • Music
  • Education
  • Economic Life
  • Slavery
  • Greek Law
  • Everyday Life
  • Gender and Sexuality
    • Women:
    • Homosexuality:
  • Modern Perspectives on Ancient Greece
    • Homer and War
    • Greece and Anthropology
    • Slavery

The Hellenistic World

  • The Hellenistic World
  • Alexander (356-323 BCE)
  • The Hellenistic States
    • Ptolemaic Egypt (323-30 BCE)
    • Seleucid Empire (323-63 BCE)
    • Advent of Rome
  • Art and Architecture
  • Literature
    • Idyll
    • Novels
    • Biography
  • Philosophy
    • Cynics
    • Epicureans
    • Stoics
    • Skeptics
  • Religion
  • Science and Medicine
    • Critical Thought
    • Theoretical Science
    • Mathematics
    • Medicine
    • Engineering
    • Travel: Geography
  • Modern Perspectives on Hellenistic Greece

Rome

  • General
  • Rome: Major Historians: Complete Texts
  • Etruscans
  • Roman Foundations
  • The Growth of Republican Institutions
  • The War with Carthage
  • Imperial Expansion under the Republic
  • Civil Wars and Revolution
    • Cicero (105-43 BCE)
  • The Principate to 192 CE
    • Augustus
    • The Julio-Claudian Dynasty 14-68 CE
    • 69 CE: Year of Three Emperors
    • The Flavian Emperors 69-96 CE
    • The Adoptive Emperors 96-192 CE
  • Roman Law
  • The Army
  • The Empire and Provinces
    • Rome: As Imperial Capital
    • The Empire as a Unity
    • Africa
    • Egypt
    • Syria/Judea
    • Asia
    • Asia Minor
    • Europe
    • Britain 
  • Later Empire (after 192 CE)
    • Elagabulus (r.218-222 CE)
  • Literature
  • Art and Architecture
  • Education
  • Economic Life
    • Life of the Upper Classes
    • Trade
    • Counting
  • Slavery
  • Everyday Life
    • Food
    • Sport and Games
    • Names
    • Language
    • Technology
    • Pompeii
  • Religion
  • Gender and Sexuality
    • Women
    • Homosexuality
  • Modern Perspectives on Ancient Rome
  • Late Antiquity
  • Military Revolution and Government
  • The End of the Roman Empire in the West
  • Late Ancient Philosophy
    • Roman Stoicism
    • Neoplatonism
  • Roman Mystery Religions
    • Demeter and Eleusis
    • Cybele
    • Isis
    • Mithras
  • End of Paganism
  • Modern Perspectives on the End of Antiquity
    • Catastrophe?
    • Continuity?
  • Christian Origins
  • Source Problems
    • The New Testament
    • The Dead Sea Scrolls
    • Gnostic Texts
    • The Nag Hammadi Library
  • Jesus of Nazareth (c.4 BCE-c.30 CE)
    • Context
    • Teaching
    • Death
    • Historical Evidence
  • Early Church: First Century
    • The Earliest Christians
    • Paul of Tarsus (d.c.65 CE) and the Pauline Churches
      • Missionary Activity
      • Theology
  • Early Church: 2nd-3rd Centuries
    • Persecution and Survival
    • Challenge to Social and Political Norms of Antiquity
    • Church Organization
  • The Emergence of Theologies
    • Early Varieties
    • Gnosticism
    • "Orthodoxy"
  • Early Christian Art
  • The "Triumph" of the Church
  • Modern Perspectives on Early Christianity