Modern History Sourcebook:
Justice for Ireland,
Feb 4, 1836
Nationalism took was had both reactionary and liberating aspects.
As a political ideology it could proclaim one nation superior
to others, or it could provide method of analysis and organization
against oppression. This second aspect can be represented by the
great Irish leader Daniel O'Connell (1775-1847), sometimes called
the Liberator of Ireland.
O'Connell's first major success was the Catholic Emancipation
Act of 1829, allowing Roman Catholics to become members of the
British House of Commons. Part of English national identity was
the nation's Protestantism. Ireland, however, remained predominantly
Catholic, and, although under the British crown had had its own
Parliament until the "Act of Union" in 1800. At that
point Catholics in Ireland could no longer be represented by Catholics.
[Most people, both English and Irish were not entitled to vote
in any case until much later in the century.]. O'Connell's repeated
success in winning election in 1828, persuaded the British prime
minister - the Duke of Wellington - that reform was necessary,
and the Catholic Emancipation Act was passed in 1829, and O'Connell
became a Member of Parliament.
That did not end Irish grievances, which continued throughout
the 19th century. On February 4, 1836, O'Connell gave this speech
in the House of Commons calling for equal justice.
It appears to me impossible to suppose that the House will consider
me presumptuous in wishing to be heard for a short time on this
question, especially after the distinct manner in which I have
been alluded to in the course of the debate. If I had no other
excuse, that would be sufficient; but I do not want it; I have
another and a better -- the question is one in the highest degree
interesting to the people of Ireland. It is, whether we mean to
do justice to that country -- whether we mean to continue the
injustice which has been already done to it, or to hold out the
hope that it will be treated in the same manner as England and
Scotland. That is the question. We know what "lip service"
is; we do not want that. There are some men who will even declare
that they are willing to refuse justice to Ireland; while there
are others who, though they are ashamed to say so, are ready to
consummate the iniquity, and they do so.
England never did do justice to Ireland -- she never did. What
we have got of it we have extorted from men opposed to us on principle
-- against which principle they have made us such concessions
as we have obtained from them. The right honorable baronet opposite
[Sir Robert Peel] says he does not distinctly understand what
is meant by a principle. I believe him. He advocated religious
exclusion on religious motives; he yielded that point at length,
when we were strong enough to make it prudent for him to do so.
Here am I calling for justice to Ireland; but there is a coalition
tonight -- not a base unprincipled one -- God forbid! -- it is
an extremely natural one; I mean that between the right honorable
baronet and the noble lord the member for North Lancashire [Lord
Stanley]. It is a natural coalition, and it is impromptu; for
the noble lord informs us he had not even a notion of taking the
part he has until the moment at which he seated himself where
he now is. I know his candor; he told us it was a sudden inspiration
which induced him to take part against Ireland. I believe it with
the most potent faith, because I know that he requires no preparation
for voting against the interests of the Irish people. [Groans.]
I thank you for that groan -- it is just of a piece with the rest.
I regret much that I have been thrown upon arguing this particular
question, because I should have liked to have dwelt upon the speech
which has been so graciously delivered from the throne today --
to have gone into its details, and to have pointed out the many
great and beneficial alterations and amendments in our existing
institutions which it hints at and recommends to the House. The
speech of last year was full of reforms in words, and in words
only; but this speech contains the great leading features of all
the salutary reforms the country wants; and if they are worked
out fairly and honestly in detail, I am convinced the country
will require no further amelioration of its institutions, and
that it will become the envy and admiration of the world. I, therefore,
hail the speech with great satisfaction.
It has been observed that the object of a king's speech is to
say as little in as many words as possible; but this speech contains
more things than words -- it contains those great principles which,
adopted in practice, will be most salutary not only to the British
Empire, but to the world. When speaking of our foreign policy,
it rejoices in the cooperation between France and this country;
but it abstains from conveying any ministerial approbation of
alterations in the domestic laws of that country which aim at
the suppression of public liberty, and the checking of public
discussion, such as call for individual reprobation, and which
I reprobate as much as any one. I should like to know whether
there is a statesman in the country who will get up in this House
and avow his approval of such proceedings on the part of the French
government. I know it may be done out of the House amid the cheers
of an assembly of friends; but the government have, in my opinion,
wisely abstained from reprobating such measures in the speech,
while they have properly exulted in such a union of the two countries
as will contribute to the national independence and the public
liberty of Europe.
Years are coming over me, but my heart is as young and as ready
as ever in the service of my country, of which I glory in being
the pensionary and the hired advocate. I stand in a situation
in which no man ever stood yet -- the faithful friend of my country
-- its servant -- its stave, if you will -- I speak its sentiments
by turns to you and to itself. I require no L2o,ooo,ooo on behalf
of Ireland -- I ask you only for justice: will you -- can you
-- I will not say dare you refuse, because that would make you
turn the other way. I implore you, as English gentlemen, to take
this matter into consideration now, because you never had such
an opportunity of conciliating. Experience makes fools wise; you
are not fools, but you have yet to be convinced. I cannot forget
the year 1825. We begged then as we would for a beggar's boon;
we asked for emancipation by all that is sacred amongst us, and
I remember how my speech and person were treated on the Treasury
Bench, when I had no opportunity of reply. The other place turned
us out and sent us back again, but we showed that justice was
with us. The noble lord says the other place has declared the
same sentiments with himself; but he could not use a worse argument.
It is the very reason why we should acquiesce in the measure of
reform, for we have no hope from that House -- all our hopes are
centered in this; and I am the living representative of those
hopes. I have no other reason for adhering to the ministry than
because they, the chosen representatives of the people of England,
are anxiously determined to give the same measure of reform to
Ireland as that which England has received. I have not fatigued
myself, but the House, in coming forward upon this occasion. I
may be laughed and sneered at by those who talk of my power; but
what has created it but the injustice that has been done in Ireland?
That is the end and the means of the magic, if you please -- the
groundwork of my influence in Ireland. If you refuse justice to
that country, it is a melancholy consideration to me to think
that you are adding substantially to that power and influence,
while you are wounding my country to its very heart's core; weakening
that throne, the monarch who sits upon which, you say you respect;
severing that union which, you say, is bound together by the tightest
links, and withholding that justice from Ireland which she will
not cease to seek till it is obtained; every man must admit that
the course I am taking is the legitimate and proper course --
I defy any man to say it is not. Condemn me elsewhere as much
as you please, but this you must admit. You may taunt the ministry
with having coalesced me, you may raise the vulgar cry of "Irishman
and Papist" against me, you may send out men called ministers
of God to slander and calumniate me; they may assume whatever
garb they please, but the question comes into this narrow compass.
I demand, I respectfully insist: on equal justice for Ireland,
on the same principle by which it has been administered to Scotland
and England. I will not take less. Refuse me that if you can.
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(c)Paul Halsall Aug 1997