Modern History Sourcebook:
The Yalta Conference, Feb. 1945
Washington, March 24 - The text of the agreements reached
at the Crimea (Yalta) Conference between President Roosevelt,
Prime Minister Churchill and Generalissimo Stalin, as released
by the State Department today, follows:
PROTOCOL OF PROCEEDINGS OF CRIMEA CONFERENCE
The Crimea Conference of the heads of the Governments of the
United States of America, the United Kingdom, and the Union of
Soviet Socialist Republics, which took place from Feb. 4 to 11,
came to the following conclusions:
I. WORLD ORGANIZATION
It was decided:
1. That a United Nations conference on the proposed world organization
should be summoned for Wednesday, 25 April, 1945, and should
be held in the United States of America.
2. The nations to be invited to this conference should be:
(a) the United Nations as they existed on 8 Feb., 1945; and
(b) Such of the Associated Nations as have declared war on the
common enemy by 1 March, 1945. (For this purpose, by the term
"Associated Nations" was meant the eight Associated
Nations and Turkey.) When the conference on world organization
is held, the delegates of the United Kingdom and United State
of America will support a proposal to admit to original membership
two Soviet Socialist Republics, i.e., the Ukraine and White Russia.
3. That the United States Government, on behalf of the three
powers, should consult the Government of China and the French
Provisional Government in regard to decisions taken at the present
conference concerning the proposed world organization.
4. That the text of the invitation to be issued to all the nations
which would take part in the United Nations conference should
be as follows:
"The Government of the United States of America, on behalf
of itself and of the Governments of the United Kingdom, the Union
of Soviet Socialistic Republics and the Republic of China and
of the Provisional Government of the French Republic invite the
Government of -------- to send representatives to a conference
to be held on 25 April, 1945, or soon thereafter , at San Francisco,
in the United States of America, to prepare a charter for a general
international organization for the maintenance of international
peace and security.
"The above-named Governments suggest that the conference
consider as affording a basis for such a Charter the proposals
for the establishment of a general international organization
which were made public last October as a result of the Dumbarton
Oaks conference and which have now been supplemented by the
following provisions for Section C of Chapter VI:
"1. Each member of the Security Council should have one vote.
"2. Decisions of the Security Council on procedural matters
should be made by an affirmative vote of seven members.
"3. Decisions of the Security Council on all matters should
be made by an affirmative vote of seven members, including the
concurring votes of the permanent members; provided that, in
decisions under Chapter VIII, Section A and under the second
sentence of Paragraph 1 of Chapter VIII, Section C, a party to
a dispute should abstain from voting.'
"Further information as to arrangements will be transmitted
"In the event that the Government of -------- desires in
advance of the conference to present views or comments concerning
the proposals, the Government of the United States of America
will be pleased to transmit such views and comments to the other
It was agreed that the five nations which will have permanent
seats on the Security Council should consult each other prior
to the United Nations conference on the question of territorial
The acceptance of this recommendation is subject to its being
made clear that territorial trusteeship will only apply to (a)
existing mandates of the League of Nations; (b) territories
detached from the enemy as a result of the present war; (c) any
other territory which might voluntarily be placed under trusteeship;
and (d) no discussion of actual territories is contemplated at
the forthcoming United Nations conference or in the preliminary
consultations, and it will be a matter for subsequent agreement
which territories within the above categories will be place under
[Begin first section published Feb., 13, 1945.]
II. DECLARATION OF LIBERATED EUROPE
The following declaration has been approved:
The Premier of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the Prime
Minister of the United Kingdom and the President of the United
States of America have consulted with each other in the common
interests of the people of their countries and those of liberated
Europe. They jointly declare their mutual agreement to concert
during the temporary period of instability in liberated Europe
the policies of their three Governments in assisting the peoples
liberated from the domination of Nazi Germany and the peoples
of the former Axis satellite states of Europe to solve by democratic
means their pressing political and economic problems.
The establishment of order in Europe and the rebuilding of national
economic life must be achieved by processes which will enable
the liberated peoples to destroy the last vestiges of nazism
and fascism and to create democratic institutions of their own
choice. This is a principle of the Atlantic Charter - the right
of all people to choose the form of government under which they
will live - the restoration of sovereign rights and self-government
to those peoples who have been forcibly deprived to them by the
To foster the conditions in which the liberated people may exercise
these rights, the three governments will jointly assist the people
in any European liberated state or former Axis state in Europe
where, in their judgment conditions require, (a) to establish
conditions of internal peace; (b) to carry out emergency relief
measures for the relief of distressed peoples; (c) to form interim
governmental authorities broadly representative of all democratic
elements in the population and pledged to the earliest possible
establishment through free elections of Governments responsive
to the will of the people; and (d) to facilitate where necessary
the holding of such elections.
The three Governments will consult the other United Nations and
provisional authorities or other Governments in Europe when
matters of direct interest to them are under consideration.
When, in the opinion of the three Governments, conditions in any
European liberated state or former Axis satellite in Europe make
such action necessary, they will immediately consult together
on the measure necessary to discharge the joint responsibilities
set forth in this declaration.
By this declaration we reaffirm our faith in the principles of
the Atlantic Charter, our pledge in the Declaration by the United
Nations and our determination to build in cooperation with other
peace-loving nations world order, under law, dedicated to peace,
security, freedom and general well-being of all mankind.
In issuing this declaration, the three powers express the hope
that the Provisional Government of the French Republic may be
associated with them in the procedure suggested.
[End first section published Feb., 13, 1945.]
III. DISMEMBERMENT OF GERMANY
It was agreed that Article 12 (a) of the Surrender terms for
Germany should be amended to read as follows:
"The United Kingdom, the United States of America and the
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics shall possess supreme authority
with respect to Germany. In the exercise of such authority they
will take such steps, including the complete dismemberment of
Germany as they deem requisite for future peace and security."
The study of the procedure of the dismemberment of Germany was
referred to a committee consisting of Mr. Anthony Eden, Mr. John
Winant, and Mr. Fedor T. Gusev. This body would consider the
desirability of associating with it a French representative.
IV. ZONE OF OCCUPATION FOR THE FRENCH AND CONTROL
COUNCIL FOR GERMANY.
It was agreed that a zone in Germany, to be occupied by the French
forces, should be allocated France. This zone would be formed
out of the British and American zones and its extent would be
settled by the British and Americans in consultation with the
French Provisional Government.
It was also agreed that the French Provisional Government should
be invited to become a member of the Allied Control Council for
The following protocol has been approved:
On the Talks Between the Heads of Three Governments at the Crimean
Conference on the Question of the German Reparations in Kind
1. Germany must pay in kind for the losses caused by her to the
Allied nations in the course of the war. Reparations are to be
received in the first instance by those countries which have
borne the main burden of the war, have suffered the heaviest
losses and have organized victory over the enemy.
2. Reparation in kind is to be exacted from Germany in three
(a) Removals within two years from the surrender of Germany or
the cessation of organized resistance from the national wealth
of Germany located on the territory of Germany herself as well
as outside her territory (equipment, machine tools, ships, rolling
stock, German investments abroad, shares of industrial, transport
and other enterprises in Germany, etc.), these removals to be
carried out chiefly for the purpose of destroying the war potential
(b) Annual deliveries of goods from current production for a
period to be fixed.
(c) Use of German labor.
3. For the working out on the above principles of a detailed
plan for exaction of reparation from Germany an Allied reparation
commission will be set up in Moscow. It will consist of three
representatives - one from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics,
one from the United Kingdom and one from the United States of
4. With regard to the fixing of the total sum of the reparation
as well as the distribution of it among the countries which
suffered from the German aggression, the Soviet and American
delegations agreed as follows:
"The Moscow reparation commission should take in its initial
studies as a basis for discussion the suggestion of the Soviet
Government that the total sum of the reparation in accordance
with the points (a) and (b) of the Paragraph 2 should be 22
billion dollars and that 50 per cent should go to the Union of
Soviet Socialist Republics."
The British delegation was of the opinion that, pending consideration
of the reparation question by the Moscow reparation commission,
no figures of reparation should be mentioned.
The above Soviet-American proposal has been passed to the Moscow
reparation commission as one of the proposals to be considered
by the commission.
VI. MAJOR WAR CRIMINALS
The conference agreed that the question of the major war criminals
should be the subject of inquiry by the three Foreign Secretaries
for report in due course after the close of the conference.
[Begin second section published Feb. 13, 1945.]
The following declaration on Poland was agreed by the conference:
"A new situation has been created in Poland as a result of
her complete liberation by the Red Army. This calls for the
establishment of a Polish Provisional Government which can be
more broadly based than was possible before the recent liberation
of the western part of Poland. The Provisional Government which
is now functioning in Poland should therefore be reorganized
on a broader democratic basis with the inclusion of democratic
leaders from Poland itself and from Poles abroad. This new Government
should then be called the Polish Provisional Government of National
"M. Molotov, Mr. Harriman and Sir A. Clark Kerr are authorized
as a commission to consult in the first instance in Moscow with
members of the present Provisional Government and with other
Polish democratic leaders from within Poland and from abroad,
with a view to the reorganization of the present Government
along the above lines. This Polish Provisional Government of
National Unity shall be pledged to the holding of free and unfettered
elections as soon as possible on the basis of universal suffrage
and secret ballot. In these elections all democratic and anti-Nazi
parties shall have the right to take part and to put forward
"When a Polish Provisional of Government National Unity has
been properly formed in conformity with the above, the Government
of the U.S.S.R., which now maintains diplomatic relations with
the present Provisional Government of Poland, and the Government
of the United Kingdom and the Government of the United States
of America will establish diplomatic relations with the new Polish
Provisional Government National Unity, and will exchange Ambassadors
by whose reports the respective Governments will be kept informed
about the situation in Poland.
"The three heads of Government consider that the eastern
frontier of Poland should follow the Curzon Line with digressions
from it in some regions of five to eight kilometers in favor
of Poland. They recognize that Poland must receive substantial
accessions in territory in the north and west. They feel that
the opinion of the new Polish Provisional Government of National
Unity should be sought in due course of the extent of these accessions
and that the final delimitation of the western frontier of Poland
should thereafter await the peace conference."
It was agreed to recommend to Marshal Tito and to Dr. Ivan Subasitch:
(a) That the Tito-Subasitch agreement should immediately be put
into effect and a new government formed on the basis of the
(b) That as soon as the new Government has been formed it should
(I) That the Anti-Fascist Assembly of the National Liberation
(AVNOJ) will be extended to include members of the last Yugoslav
Skupstina who have not compromised themselves by collaboration
with the enemy, thus forming a body to be known as a temporary
(II) That legislative acts passed by the Anti-Fascist Assembly
of the National Liberation (AVNOJ) will be subject to subsequent
ratification by a Constituent Assembly; and that this statement
should be published in the communiqué of the conference.
[End second section published Feb. 13, 1945.]
IX. ITALO-YOGOSLAV FRONTIER - ITALO-ASUTRIAN FRONTIER
Notes on these subjects were put in by the British delegation
and the American and Soviet delegations agreed to consider them
and give their views later.
X. YUGOSLAV-BULGARIAN RELATIONS
There was an exchange of views between the Foreign Secretaries
on the question of the desirability of a Yugoslav-Bulgarian pact
of alliance. The question at issue was whether a state still
under an armistice regime could be allowed to enter into a treaty
with another state. Mr. Eden suggested that the Bulgarian and
Yugoslav Governments should be informed that this could not be
approved. Mr. Stettinius suggested that the British and American
Ambassadors should discuss the matter further with Mr. Molotov
in Moscow. Mr. Molotov agreed with the proposal of Mr. Stettinius.
XI. SOUTHEASTERN EUROPE
The British delegation put in notes for the consideration of
their colleagues on the following subjects:
(a) The Control Commission in Bulgaria.
(b) Greek claims upon Bulgaria, more particularly with reference
(c) Oil equipment in Rumania.
Mr. Eden, Mr. Stettinius and Mr. Molotov exchanged views on the
situation in Iran. It was agreed that this matter should be
pursued through the diplomatic channel.
[Begin third section published Feb. 13, 1945.]
XIII. MEETINGS OF THE THREE FOREIGN SECRETARIES
The conference agreed that permanent machinery should be set up
for consultation between the three Foreign Secretaries; they
should meet as often as necessary, probably about every three
or four months.
These meetings will be held in rotation in the three capitals,
the first meeting being held in London.
[End third section published Feb. 13, 1945.]
XIV. THE MONTREAUX CONVENTION AND THE STRAITS
It was agreed that at the next meeting of the three Foreign Secretaries
to be held in London, they should consider proposals which it
was understood the Soviet Government would put forward in relation
to the Montreaux Convention, and report to their Governments.
The Turkish Government should be informed at the appropriate
The forgoing protocol was approved and signed by the three Foreign
Secretaries at the Crimean Conference Feb. 11, 1945.
E. R. Stettinius Jr. M. Molotov Anthony Eden
AGREEMENT REGARDING JAPAN
The leaders of the three great powers - the Soviet Union, the
United States of America and Great Britain - have agreed that
in two or three months after Germany has surrendered and the
war in Europe is terminated, the Soviet Union shall enter into
war against Japan on the side of the Allies on condition that:
1. The status quo in Outer Mongolia (the Mongolian People's Republic)
shall be preserved.
2. The former rights of Russia violated by the treacherous attack
of Japan in 1904 shall be restored, viz.:
(a) The southern part of Sakhalin as well as the islands adjacent
to it shall be returned to the Soviet Union;
(b) The commercial port of Dairen shall be internationalized,
the pre-eminent interests of the Soviet Union in this port being
safeguarded, and the lease of Port Arthur as a naval base of
the U.S.S.R. restored;
(c) The Chinese-Eastern Railroad and the South Manchurian Railroad,
which provide an outlet to Dairen, shall be jointly operated
by the establishment of a joint Soviet-Chinese company, it being
understood that the pre-eminent interests of the Soviet Union
shall be safeguarded and that China shall retain sovereignty
3. The Kurile Islands shall be handed over to the Soviet Union.
It is understood that the agreement concerning Outer Mongolia
and the ports and railroads referred to above will require concurrence
of Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek. The President will take measures
in order to maintain this concurrence on advice from Marshal
The heads of the three great powers have agreed that these claims
of the Soviet Union shall be unquestionably fulfilled after Japan
has been defeated.
For its part, the Soviet Union expresses it readiness to conclude
with the National Government of China a pact of friendship and
alliance between the U.S.S.R. and China in order to render assistance
to China with its armed forces for the purpose of liberating
China from the Japanese yoke.
Joseph Stalin Franklin d. Roosevelt Winston S. Churchill
February 11, 1945.
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(c)Paul Halsall Aug 1997