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MODERN HISTORY SOURCEBOOK CRIB SHEET
Empiricism and Rationalism

[Note: Crib Sheets are meant as review aids for a particular period/theme. They are not complete overviews!]
The Rationalist Tradition
Rene Descartes 1591-1650
  • Discourse on Method 1637
  • Meditationes de Prima Philosophia 1641 (Meditations)
  • Principia Philosophiae 1644 (Principles)
  • Cogito ergo sum I think therefore I am
  • sum res cogitans - I am a being that thinks
Baruch(Benedictus) Spinoza 1632-77
  • Tractatus Theologico-Politicus 1670
  • Ethics 1677
  • Pantheism/Panentheism
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646-1716)
The Empiricist Tradition
Francis Bacon 1561-1626
  • Novum Organum 1620
  • Theory of Induction
Thomas Hobbes 1588-1679
  • Leviathan 1651
John Locke 1632-1704
  • An Essay Concerning Human Understanding 1690
  • Two Treatises of Civil Government 1690
  • A Letter Concerning Toleration 1689
  • innate ideas
  • tabula rasa
Bishop George Berkley 1685-1753
David Hume 1711-1761
  • Treatise on Human Nature 1739/40
  • An Inquiry Concerning Human Understanding 1748
  • Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion 1777
  • Opposes logic of induction
Immanual Kant 1724-1804
  • Critique of Pure Reason 1781
  • Critique of Practical Reason 1788
  • Categorical imperative
  • "inner world within, and starry heavens above"

The French Enlightenment and the Philosophes
Voltaire (Francois-Marie Arouet) 1694-1778
  • Letters on the English 1733
  • Lettres Philosophiques 1734
  • Elements of the Philosophy of Newton 1738
  • Candide 1759
  • Dictionnaire Philosophique 1764
  • Ecrasez L'infame
Denis Diderot 1713-84
Jean le Rond d'Alembert 1717-83
  • The Encyclopedia 1751-72 17 Vols


© 1997, Paul Halsall, halsall@murray.fordham.edu