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MODERN HISTORY SOURCEBOOK
CRIB SHEET: Socialism, Marxism, and Trade Unionism


[Note: Crib Sheets are meant as review aids for a particular period/theme. They are not complete overviews!]

Origins of Socialism

  • French Revolution - theory and organization necessary for change
  • Industrial Revolution:
    -the oppression of the working class
    -a new possibility - that poverty might be abolished
    -Creation of class consciousness
  • Judeo-Christian ideas of Justice

Utopian Socialists

  • Count Claude Henry de Saint-Simon (1760-1825)
  • Charles Fourier (1772-1837) - phalansteres (cf. Kibbutzim in Israel]
  • Louis Blanc (1811-1882)
  • Pierre Joseph Proudhon

Early English Socialism

  • Robert Owen (1771-1858) - New Lanark
  • Chartism
  • The Grand National Consolidated Trade Union

Socialist Philosophy - Marx and Others

  • Karl Marx(1818-1883)
  • Fredrich Engels(1820-1895)
  • The Communist Manifesto 1848
  • Das Kapital 1867

Origins of Marxism

  • German Philosophy - [Hegel] - for analysis of historical process
  • English Economics [Smith, Riccardo] - for importance and mechanics of economic
  • French Politics - [repeated revolutions - for means of social change

Dialectical Materialism

Thesis - Antithesis

|

Synthesis - Antithesis
|

New Synthesis

In sum - History has meaning

Marx's Application to European History

Feudalism - creates bourgeoisie

|

Capitalism

Capitalism - creates proletariat

|

Will create Socialism

In sum - a "scientific" approach to history

Alternatives to Marx

Philosophies:

  • Edward Bernstein (1850-1932) - Revisionism
  • Fabianism 1884
    George Bernard Shaw (1856-1950)
    Sidney (1859-1947) and Beatrice Webb.(1866-1946).

Trade Unions:

  • Craft Unions
  • General Unions

Socialist Parties

  • Needed universal or mass male suffrage: Arrives in late 19th century
    Britain 1867, 1884 (not quite universal)
    Germany 1871
    France, 1871
    Switzerland 1879
    Spain 1890
    Belgium 1893
    Netherlands 1896
    Norway 1898
    Italy 1912
  • German Social Democrat Party [SPD]
    founded 1875 by Ferdinand Lasselle.
  • Labour Party in Britain
    Keir Hardie first socialist MP - 1892
    Independent Labour Party - 1901
    Taft Vale Decision - Unions can be sued for damages
    Trades Union Congress launches Labour Representation Committee
    Labour Party
    1906.

 


© 1997, Paul Halsall, halsall@murray.fordham.edu