On The Tatars, 1220-1221CE
For some years I continued averse from mentioning this event, deeming it so horrible
that I shrank from recording it and ever withdrawing one foot as I advanced the other. To
whom, indeed, can it be easy to write the announcement of the death-blow of Islam and the
Muslims, or who is he on whom the remembrance thereof can weigh lightly? O would that my
mother had not born me or that I had died and become a forgotten thing ere this befell!
Yet, withal a number of my friends urged me to set it down in writing, and I hesitated
long, but at last came to the conclusion that to omit this matter could serve no useful
I say, therefore, that this thing involves the description of the greatest catastrophe
and the most dire calamity (of the like of which days and nights are innocent) which
befell all men generally, and the Muslims in particular; so that, should one say that the
world, since God Almighty created Adam until now, has not been afflicted with the like
thereof, he would but speak the truth. For indeed history does not contain anything which
approaches or comes near unto it. For of the most grievous calamities recorded was what
Nebuchadnezzar inflicted on the children of Israel by his slaughter of them and his
destruction of Jerusalem; and what was Jerusalem in comparison to the countries which
these accursed miscreants destroyed, each city of which was double the size of Jerusalem?
Or what were the children of Israel compared to those whom these slew? For verily those
whom they massacred in a single city exceeded all the children of Israel. Nay, it is
unlikely that mankind will see the like of this calamity, until the world comes to an end
and perishes, except the final outbreak of Gog and Magog.
For even Antichrist will spare such as follow him, though he destroy those who oppose
him, but these Tatars spared none, slaying women and men and children, ripping open
pregnant women and killing unborn babes. Verily to God do we belong, and unto Him do we
return, and there is no strength and no power save in God, the High, the Almighty, in face
of this catastrophe, whereof the sparks flew far and wide, and the hurt was universal; and
which passed over the lands like clouds driven by the wind. For these were a people who
emerged from the confines of China, and attacked the cities of Turkestan, like Kashghar
and Balasaghun, and thence advanced on the cities of Transoxiana, such as Samarqand,
Bukhara and the like, taking possession of them, and treating their inhabitants in such
wise as we shall mention; and of them one division then passed on into Khurasan, until
they had made an end of taking possession, and destroying, and slaying, and plundering,
and thence passing on to Ray, Hamadan and the Highlands, and the cities contained therein,
even to the limits of Iraq, whence they marched on the towns of Adharbayjan and Arraniyya,
destroying them and slaying most of their inhabitants, of whom none escaped save a small
remnant; and all this in less than a year; this is a thing whereof the like has not been
heard. And when they had finished with Adharbayjan and Arraniyya, they passed on to
Darband-i-Shirwan, and occupied its cities, none of which escaped save the fortress
wherein was their King; wherefore they passed by it to the countries of the Lan and the
Lakiz and the various nationalities which dwell in that region, and plundered, slew, and
destroyed them to the full. And thence they made their way to the lands of Qipchaq, who
are the most numerous of the Turks, and slew all such as withstood them, while the
survivors fled to the fords and mountain-tops, and abandoned their country, which these
Tatars overran. All this they did in the briefest space of time, remaining only for so
long as their march required and no more.
Another division, distinct from that mentioned above, marched on Ghazna and its
dependencies, and those parts of India, Sistan and Kirman which border thereon, and
wrought therein deeds like unto the other, nay, yet more grievous. Now this is a thing the
like of which ear has not heard; for Alexander, concerning whom historians agree that he
conquered the world, did not do so with such swiftness, but only in the space of about ten
years; neither did he slay, but was satisfied that men should be subject to him. But these
Tatars conquered most of the habitable globe, and the best, the most flourishing and most
populous part thereof, and that whereof the inhabitants were the most advanced in
character and conduct, in about a year; nor did any country escape their devastations
which did not fearfully expect them and dread their arrival.
Moreover they need no commissariat, nor the conveyance of supplies, for they have with
them sheep, cows, horses, and the like quadrupeds, the flesh of which they eat, naught
else. As for their beasts which they ride, these dig into the earth with their hoofs and
eat the roots of plants, knowing naught of barley. And so, when they alight anywhere, they
have need of nothing from without. As for their religion, they worship the sun when it
rises, and regard nothing as unlawful, for they eat all beasts, even dogs, pigs, and the
like; nor do they recognise the marriage-tie, for several men are in marital relations
with one woman, and if a child is born, it knows not who is its father.
Therefore Islam and the Muslims have been afflicted during this period with calamities
wherewith no people hath been visited. These Tatars (may God confound them!) came from the
East, and wrought deeds which horrify all who hear of them, and which you shall, please
God, see set forth in full detail in their proper connection. And of these was the
invasion of Syria by the Franks (may God curse them!) out of the West, and their attack on
Egypt, and occupation of the port of Damietta therein, so that Egypt and Syria were like
to be conquered by them, but for the grace of God and the help which He vouchsafed us
against them, as we have mentioned under the year 614 (A.D. 1217-18). Of these, moreover,
was that the sword was drawn between those who escaped from these two foes, and strife was
rampant, as we have also mentioned: and verily unto God do we belong and unto Him do we
return! We ask God to vouchsafe victory to Islam and the Muslims, for there is none other
to aid, help, or defend the True Faith. But if God intends evil to any people, naught can
avert it, nor have they any ruler save Him. As for these Tatars, their achievements were
only rendered possible by the absence of any effective obstacle; and the cause of this
absence was that Muhammad Khwarazmshah had overrun the lands, slaying and destroying their
Kings, so that he remained alone ruling over all these countries; wherefore, when he was
defeated by the Tatars, none was left in the lands to check those or protect these, that
so God might accomplish a thing which was to be done.
It is now time for us to describe how they first burst forth into the lands. Stories
have been related to me, which the hearer can scarcely credit, as to the terror of the
Tatars, which God Almighty cast into men's hearts; so that it is said that a single one of
them would enter a village or a quarter wherein were many people, and would continue to
slay them one after another, none daring to stretch forth his hand against this horseman.
And I have heard that one of them took a man captive, but had not with him any weapon
wherewith to kill him; and he said to his prisoner, "Lay your head on the ground and
do not move," and he did so, and the Tatar went and fetched his sword and slew him
therewith. Another man related to me as follows: "I was going," said he,
"with seventeen others along a road, and there met us a Tatar horseman, and bade us
bind one another's arms. My companions began to do as he bade them, but I said to them,
"He is but one man; wherefore, then, should we not kill him and flee?' They replied,
'We are afraid.' I said, 'This man intends to kill you immediately; let us therefore
rather kill him, that perhaps God may deliver us.' But I swear by God that not one of them
dared to do this, so I took a knife and slew him, and we fled and escaped.' And such
occurrences were many.
From: Edward G. Browne, A Literary History of Persia, (Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, 1902), Vol. II, pp. 427-431.
Scanned by Jerome S. Arkenberg, Cal. State Fullerton. The text has been modernized by
This text is part of the Internet
Medieval Source Book. The Sourcebook is a collection of public domain and
copy-permitted texts related to medieval and Byzantine history.
Unless otherwise indicated the specific electronic form of the document is copyright.
Permission is granted for electronic copying, distribution in print form for educational
purposes and personal use. If you do reduplicate the document, indicate the source. No
permission is granted for commercial use.
© Paul Halsall, August 1998