8.ii.553. Nov.146. Justinian to Areobindas, P.P.
A Permission granted to the Hebrews to read the Sacred Scriptures according to
Tradition, in Greek, Latin or any other Language, and an Order to expel from their
community those who do not believe in the judgment, the Resurrection, and the Creation of
Necessity dictates that when the Hebrews listen to their sacred texts they should not
confine themselves to the meaning of the letter, but should also devote their attention to
those sacred prophecies which are hidden from them, and which announce the mighty Lord and
Saviour Jesus Christ. And though, by surrendering themselves to senseless interpretations,
they still err from the true doctrine, yet, learning that they disagree among themselves,
we have not permitted this disagreement to continue without a ruling on our part. From
their own complaints which have been brought to us, we have understood that some only
speak Hebrew, and wish to use it for the sacred books, and others think that a Greek
translation should be added, and that they have been disputing about this for a long time.
Being apprised of the matter at issue, we give judgment in favour of those who wish to use
Greek also for the reading of the sacred scriptures, or any other tongue which in any
district allows the hearers better to understand the text.
We therefore sanction that, wherever there is a Hebrew congregation, those who wish it
may, in their synagogues, read the sacred books to those who are present in Greek, or even
Latin, or any other tongue. For the language changes in different places, and the reading
changes with it, so that all present may understand, and live and act according to what
they hear. Thus there shall be no opportunity for their interpreters, who make use only of
the Hebrew, to corrupt it in any way they like, since the ignorance of the public conceals
their depravity. We make this proviso that those who use Greek shall use the text of the
seventy interpreters, which is the most accurate translation, and the one most highly
approved, since it happened that the translators, divided into two groups, and working in
different places, all produced exactly the same text.
i. Moreover who can fail to admire those men, who, writing long before the saving
revelation of our mighty Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, yet as though they saw its coming
with their eyes completed the translation of the sacred books as if the prophetic grace
was illuminating them. This therefore they shall primarily use, but that we may not seem
to be forbidding all other texts we allow the use of that of Aquila, though he was not of
their people, and his translation differs not slightly from that of the Septuagint.
ii. But the Mishnah, or as they call it the second tradition, we prohibit entirely. For
it is not part of the sacred books, nor is it handed down by divine inspiration through
the prophets, but the handiwork of man, speaking only of earthly things, and having
nothing of the divine in it. But let them read the holy words themselves, rejecting the
commentaries, and not concealing what is said in the sacred writings, and disregarding the
vain writings which do not form a part of them, which have been devised by them themselves
for the destruction of the simple. By these instructions we ensure that no one shall be
penalised or prohibited who reads the Greek or any other language. And their elders,
Archiphericitae and presbyters, and those called magistrates, shall not by any
machinations or anathemas have power to refuse this right, unless by chance they wish to
suffer corporal punishment and the confiscation of their goods, before they yield to our
will and to the commands which are better and clearer to God which we enjoin.
If any among them seek to introduce impious vanities, denying the resurrection or the
judgment, or the work of God, or that angels are part of creation, we require them
everywhere to be expelled forthwith; that no backslider raise his impious voice to
contradict the evident purpose of God. Those who utter such sentiments shall be put to
death, and thereby the Jewish people shall be purged of the errors which they introduced.
We pray that when they hear the reading of the books in one or the other language, they
may guard themselves against the depravity of the interpreters, and, not clinging to the
literal words, come to the point of the matter, and perceive their diviner meaning, so
that they may start afresh to learn the better way, and may cease to stray vainly, and to
err in that which is most essential, we mean hope in God. For this reason we have opened
the door for the reading of the scriptures in every language, that all may henceforth
receive its teaching, and become fitter for learning better things. For it is acknowledged
that he, who is nourished upon the sacred scriptures and has little need of direction, is
much readier to discern the truth, and to choose the better path, than he who understands
nothing of them, but clings to the name of his faith alone, and is held by it as by a
sacred anchor, and believes that what can be called heresy in its purest form is divine
This is our sacred will and pleasure, and your Excellency and your present colleague
and your staff shall see that it is carried out, and shall not allow the Hebrews to
contravene it. Those who resist it or try to put any obstruction in its way, shall first
suffer corporal punishment, and then be compelled to live in exile, forfeiting also their
property, that they flaunt not their impudence against God and the empire. You shall also
circulate our law to the provincial governors, that they learning its contents may enforce
it in their several cities, knowing that it is to be strictly carried out under pain of
from James Parkes: The Conflict of the Church and the
Synagogue: A Study in the Origins of Antisemitism, (New York: JPS, 1934), 392-393
This text in multiple later printings by Atheneum has no indication of
This text is part of the Internet
Medieval Source Book. The Sourcebook is a collection of public domain and
copy-permitted texts related to medieval and Byzantine history.
Unless otherwise indicated the specific electronic form of the document is copyright.
Permission is granted for electronic copying, distribution in print form for educational
purposes and personal use. If you do reduplicate the document, indicate the source. No
permission is granted for commercial use.
© Paul Halsall, August 1998