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Essential Secondary

Essential Secondary Sources


Language Training Manuals, Reference Guides, Histories
Guides to Literature
Important Journals and Series
Language and Sociolinguistic Studies
Literary, Historical, Cultural

For editions, translations, and manuscript texts of most known works in the French of England, see:
Dean, Ruth J., with the collaboration of Maureen B.M. Boulton. Anglo-Norman Literature: A Guide to Texts and Manuscripts. London: Anglo-Norman Text Society, 1999. OPS 3. Indispensable.


The Anglo-Norman Dictionary on-line.

An Anglo-Norman Dictionary
, ed. Louise W. Stone, William Rothwell, et al. London: MHRA, 1977-92. The most comprehensive dictionary of Anglo-Norman so far, though now difficult to find.

Godefroy, F. Dictionnaire de l'ancien français et de tous ses dialectes du IXe au XVe siècle, 10 vols. Paris, 1880-1902.

Gransaignes d'Hauterive, R. Dictionnaire d'ancien français. Paris: Larousse, 1947.

Greimas, A-J. Dictionnaire de l'ancien français: Le Moyen Age. Paris: Larousse, 1995.

---. and T. M. Keane. Dictionnaire du moyen français: La Renaissance. Paris: Larousse, 1992.

The Heidelberg Dictionnaire étymologique de l'ancien française (DEAF) will be a splendid resource: it is in progress.  See its online information

Hindley, Alan, Frederick W. Langley and Brian J. Levy. The Old French - English Dictionary.  Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000. The most convenient portable modern dictionary.

Tobler, Adolf, and E. Lommatszsch. Französisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch. Bonn, Basel, Leipzig, 1928--.

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Language Training Manuals, Reference Guides, Histories

For a brief overview, see Fenster, Thelma, "French Language," in An Encyclopaedia of Medieval France, ed. W.W. Kibler.  New York: Garland, 1995. 370-74.

Einhorn, E. Old French: A Concise Handbook. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1974.

Fouché, Pierre. Phonétique historique du français. 3 vols. Paris: Klincksieck, 1952.

Kibler, W.W. An Introduction to Old French. New York: MLA, 1984.

Lusignan, Serge Lusignan.  "Langue française et société du XIIIe au Xve siècle." Nouvelle histoire de la langue française. Ed. Jacques Chaurand. Paris: Seuil, 1999. 93-143.

Pope, M.K. From Latin to Modern French with Especial Consideration of Anglo-Norman. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1934 and repr.

Short, Ian. Manual of Anglo-Norman. ANTS OPS 7.  London: ANTS, 2007.

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Guides to Literature

Calin, William W. The French Tradition and the Literature of Medieval England. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1994.

Legge, M. Dominica, Anglo-Norman in the Cloisters. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1950.

---. Anglo-Norman Literature and its Background. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1963; repr. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press, 1978.

Vising, Johann. Anglo-Norman Language and Literature. London: Oxford University Press, 1923.

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Important Journals and Series

Anglo-Norman Studies: Proceedings of the Battle Abbey Conferences
. The year cited in the title of individual volumes is not usually the year of publication; special care is needed in referring to this fundamental journal.

The French of England Translation Series (FRETS).  Published at the University of Arizona Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies.  See the description of the series and list of volumes online

Haskins Society Journal.  High-quality source of historical articles in the period.

Medium Aevum. Primarily literary. Middle English, French, and other languages.

Modern Language Review.

Romania.  The journal where most texts in the French of England were first published in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Continues to publish valuable editions of shorter texts.

Thirteenth-Century England. Well-respected series published annually by Boydell and Brewer.

The Year's Work in Modern Language Studies.  Reviews of all new work in the subject; very well-organized.

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Language and Sociolinguistic Studies

Bäuml, Franz H.  "Varieties and Consequences of Medieval Literacy and Illiteracy." Speculum 55 (1980): 237-65.

Berndt, Rolf. "The Linguistic Situation in England from the Norman Conquest to the Loss of Normandy (1066-1204)."  Approaches to Historical Linguistics: An Anthology, ed. Roger Lass. New York: 1969. 369-81.

---."The Period of the Final Decline of French in Medieval England (Fourteenth and Early Fifteenth Centuries)." Zeitschrift für Anglistik und Amerikanistik 20 (1972): 341-69.

Clark, Cecily. "Women's Names in Post-Conquest England: Observations and Speculations." Speculum 53 (1978): 223-51.

Crane, Susan. "Social Aspects of Bilingualism in the Thirteenth Century." Thirteenth Century England 6 (1997): 103-116.

Fenster, Thelma.  "French Language."  An Encyclopaedia of Medieval France.  Ed. W.W. Kibler.  New York: Garland, 1995.  370-74.

Frankis, John. "The Social Context of Vernacular Writing in Thirteenth Century England: The Evidence of the Manuscripts." Thirteenth-Century England 1 (1986): 175-184.

Kibbee, Douglas A. "Historical Perspectives on the Place of Anglo-Norman in the History of the French Language." French Studies 54 (2000): 137-53.

---. For to Speke French Trewely: The French Language in England 1000-1600: Description and Instruction. Amsterdam-Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 1991.

Lodge, R.A. French: From Dialect to Standard. London: Routledge, 1993.

---. "Language Attitudes and Linguistic Norms in France and England in the Thirteenth Century," Thirteenth Century England 4 (1991): 73-83.

Porter, David W. "The Earliest Texts with English and French," Anglo-Saxon England (1999): 87-110.

Romaine, Suzanne. Bilingualism. Oxford: Blackwell, 1989.

Rothwell, W. "The 'Faus franceis d'Angleterre': Later Anglo-Norman." Anglo-Norman Anniversary Essays.  London: ANTS OP 2, 1993. 309-26.

---. "The Role of French in Thirteenth-Century England." Bulletin of the John Rylands Library 58 (1975): 445-66.

---."The Teaching of French in Medieval England." Modern Language Review 63 (1968): 37-46.

[For a fuller list of Rothwell's publications on Anglo-Norman lexis and the French of England, see De Mot en mot: Aspects of Medieval Linguistics: Essays in Honour of W.R. Rothwell.  Ed. Stewart Gregory and D.A. Trotter.  Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 1997.]

Short, Ian. "Anglice loqui nesciunt Cultura Neolatina 69 (2009): 245-62. : monoglots in Anglo-Norman England." 

---."LAnglo-normand au siècle de Chaucer : un regain de statistiques."  Le Plurilinguisme au Moyen Age : Orient - Occident.  Ed. Claire Kappler & Suzanne Thiolier-Méjean. Paris: LHarmattan, 2009. 67-77. 

---. "On Bilingualism in Anglo-Norman England." Romanische Philologie 33 (1979-80): 467-79.
---. "Tam Angli Quam Franci: Self-Definition in Anglo-Norman England." Anglo-Norman Studies 18 (1995): 153-75.

Staley, Lynn. Languages of Power in the Age of Richard II. University Park: Penn State Press, 2005.

Trotter, David. “Language Contact and Lexicography: The Case of Anglo-Norman.” The Origins and Development of Emigrant Languages: Proceedings from the Second Rasmus Rask Colloquium, Odense University, November 1994.  Ed. Hans R.Nielsen and Lene Schøsler, Odense: Odense University Press, 1996. 21-39. Trenchant and concise account of the status of Anglo-Norman, discussion of appropriate paradigms for Anglo-Norman and for relating it to other languages in Britain and elsewhere.

---. ed.  Multilingualism in Later Medieval Britain. Cambridge: Brewer, 2000.

Wilson, R.M. "English and French in England 1100-1300." History 28 (1943): 37-60.

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Literary, Historical, and Cultural

Barlow, Frank. The Feudal Kingdom of England 1042-1216. London and New York: Longman, 1955-99 (5 editions).

Bartlett, Robert. England Under the Norman and Angevin Kings 1075-1225. Oxford: Clarendon Press ; New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Baswell, Christopher. "Multilingualism on the Page." Middle English, Oxford Companion to Twenty-First Century Literature. Ed. Paul Strohm. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006.

Bates, David and Anne Curry, eds. England and Normandy in the Middle Ages. London ; Rio Grande, Ohio: Hambledon Press, 1994.

Busby, Keith. "'Neither Flesh nor Fish, nor Good Red Herring': The Case of Anglo-Norman Literature." Studies in Honour of Hans-Erich Keller: Medieval French and Occitan Literature and Romance Linguistics.  Ed. Rupert T. Pickens.  Kalamazoo, MI: Medieval Institute Publications, 1993. 399-417. A useful concise overview of the history and nature of the French literature of England.

Butterfield, Ardis. The Familiar Enemy: Chaucer, Language, and Nation in the Hundred Years War. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010.

Chibnall, Marjorie. Anglo-Norman England 1066-1166. Oxford: Blackwell, 1986.

---. The Debate on the Norman Conquest. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1999.

Clanchy, M.T. England and Its Rulers 1066-1272, 2nd. ed. Oxford: Blackwell, 1998.

---.From Memory to Written Record 2nd ed. Oxford: Blackwell, 1993.

Crane, Susan. "Anglo-Norman Cultures." The Cambridge History of Medieval English Literature.  Ed. David Wallace, 35-60. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999.

---. Insular Romance: Politics, Faith, and Culture in Anglo-Norman and Middle English Literature. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1986.

Delano-Smith, Catherine, and Roger J.P. Kain. English Maps: A History. London: British Library, 1999.

Edson, Evelyn. Mapping Time and Space: How Medieval Mapmakers Viewed Their World. London: British Library, 1999.

Field, Rosalind. "Romance in England, 1066-1400." The Cambridge History of Medieval English Literature.  Ed. David Wallace.  Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999. 152-76.

Foulet, Alfred, and Mary Blakely Speer. On Editing Old French Texts. Lawrence, 1979.

Frankis, P. John. "The Social Context of Vernacular Writing in the Thirteenth Century: The Evidence of the Manuscripts," Thirteenth Century England I, 175-84.

Galloway, Andrew. "Writing History in England," in The Cambridge History of Medieval Literature.  Ed. David Wallace.  Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999. 255-83.

Georgianna, Linda. "Coming to Terms with the Norman Conquest: Nationalism and English Literary History." Yearbook of Research in English and American Literature 14, Literature and the Nation.  Ed. Brook Thomas.  Tübingen: Narr, 1998.  33-53.

Gillingham, John. "The Context and Purposes of Geoffrey of Monmouth's History of the Kings of Britain." ANS 13 (1990): 99-118.

Hastings, Adrian. The Construction of Nationhood: Ethnicity, Religion, and Nationalism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997.

Higham, N.J. The Norman Conquest. Sutton Pocket Histories. Stroud, Gloucestershire: Sutton, 1995.

Jeffrey, David L. and Brian J. Levy, ed. and trans. The Anglo-Norman Lyric: An Anthology. Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Medieval Studies, 1990.

Johnson, Lesley. "Imagining Communities: Medieval and Modern." Concepts of National Identity in the Middle Ages. Ed. Simon Forde and Lesley Johnson. Leeds: University of Leeds, 1995. 1-20.

Laurent, Françoise. Plaire et édifier: Les récits hagiographiques composés en Angleterre aux XIIe et XIIIe siècles. Paris: Champion, 1998.

Lewis, C.P. "The French in England before the Norman Conquest." ANS 17 (1994): 123-39.

Nicholls, Jonathan. The Matter of Courtesy: Medieval Courtesy Books and the Gawain-Poet. Woodbridge: Brewer, 1985.

Otter, Monika. Inventiones: Fiction and Referentiality in Twelfth-Century English Historical Writing. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1996.

Partner, Nancy. Serious Entertainments: The Writing of History in Twelfth-Century England. Chicago: University of Chicago, 1977.

Rollo, David. Historical Fabrication, Ethic Fable, and French Romance in Twelfth-Century England. Edward C. Armstrong Monographs on Medieval Literature 9. Lexington: French Forum Publishers, 1998.

Schmolke-Hasselmann, Beata. The Evolution of Arthurian Romance: The Verse Tradition from Chrétien to Froissart. Trans. Margaret and Roger Middleton. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998.

Shopkow, Leah. History and Community: Norman Historical Writing in the Eleventh and Twelfth Centuries. Washington DC: Catholic University of America Press, 1997.

Short, Ian.  "Anglice loqui nesciunt: Monoglots in Anglo-Norman England."  Cultura Neolatina 69 (2009): 245-62.

---. "L'Anglo-normand au travail."  Romania 127 (2009): 487-89.

---. "Anglo-Norman Language and Literature." Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages.  Ed. Robert E. Bjork. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010.  888, 949, 1003-4.

---. "Anglo-Norman Literature, La Chanson de Roland, etc." The New Oxford Companion to LIterature in French. Ed. Peter France. Oxford: Clarendon, 1995.  28-32, 705-6, 18, 46, 82, 88-89, 341, 364, 366, 396, 507-8, 621, 649, 847, 849.

---. "Another Look at 'le faus franceis.'"  Nottingham Medieval Studies 54 (2010): 35-55.

---. "Language and Literature."  A Companion to the Anglo-Norman World.  Ed. C. Harper-Bill and E. Van Houts. Woodbridge: Boydell and Brewer, 2003. 191-213.

---. "Literary Culture at the Court of Henry II."  Henry II: New Interpretations.  Ed. C. Harper-Bill and N. Vincent. Woodbridge: Boydell, 2007. 335-61.  

---. "La Littérature anglo-normande et les débuts de la chevalerie."  Esprit de chevalerie et littérature chevaleresque: Actes du quatrième Colloque d'Etudes Médiévales (mars 2003).  Taiwan: University Fu Jen, 2004.  66-77.  

---.  "Patrons and Polyglots: French Literature in Twelfth-Century England." ANS 14 (1991): 229-49.

---.  "Verbatim et literatim: Oral and Written French in 12th-Century Britain."  Vox Romanica 68 (2009): 156-68. 

Spiegel, Gabrielle. Romancing the Past: The Rise of Vernacular Prose Historiography in Thirteenth-Century France. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993.

---."Pseudo-Turpin, The Crisis of the Aristocracy, and the Beginnings of Vernacular Historiography in France." Journal of Medieval History 12 (1986): 207-23.

Stafford, Pauline. "Women and the Norman Conquest." Transactions of the Royal Historical Society  6th ser., vol. 4 (1994): 221-49.

---.Queen Emma and Queen Edith: Queenship and Women’s Power in Eleventh-Century England. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 1997.

van Houts, Elizabeth. The Normans in Europe. Manchester Medieval Sources Series. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2000.

van Emden, Wolfgang. La Chanson de Roland. Critical guides to French texts 113. Grant & Cutler, 1995. Very useful intro to text, with exhaustive bibliography.

Walker, David. The Normans in Britain. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell, 1995.

Warren, Michelle R. History on the Edge: Excalibur and the Borders of Britain, 1100-1300. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2000.


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