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Primary History









 
Primary Sources: History

 

This bibliography contains a variety of printed historical sources in Anglo-Norman dating from the late eleventh to mid-fifteenth centuries. All entries, except Chronicles, are annotated. The bibliography is by no means complete, so we welcome any additions that readers may wish to send us.

Click on a heading to see listings of each type of source.

Chronicles and Historical Literature (compiled by R. Slitt) (slitt@fordham.edu)
Legal Records (compiled by M. Kowaleski) (kowaleski@fordham.edu)
Maritime Records (compiled by M. Kowaleski)
Town Records (compiled by M. Kowaleski)
Letters and Administrative Records (compiled by M. Kowaleski)


Chronicles and Historical Literature

An Anglo-Norman Brut (Royal 13.A.xxi),
ed. Alexander Bell. Oxford: Anglo-Norman Text Society, 1969.

The Anglo-Norman Pseudo-Turpin Chronicle of William de Briane, ed. Ian Short. Oxford: Anglo-Norman Text Society, 1973.

The Anonimalle Chronicle; written in the fourteenth century in northern England. There are several modern editions:

  • The Anonimalle Chronicle, 1307 to 1334, from Brotherton Collection MS 29, ed. Wendy R. Childs and John Taylor. Leeds: Yorkshire Archaeological Society, 1991. Anglo-Norman with facing-page translation in English.

  • The Anonimalle Chronicle, 1333-1381 from a MS written at St. Mary's Abbey, York, and now in the possession of Lt.-Col. Sir William Ingleby, Bart., ed. V.H. Galbraith. Manchester: The University Press, 1927. Anglo-Norman only.

The Crusade and Death of Richard I, ed. R.C. Johnston. Oxford: Anglo-Norman Text Society, 1961.

La Destructioun de Rome, ed. Luciano Formisano, London: Anglo-Norman Text Society Plain Text Series 8, 1990.

Fouke le Fitz Waryn, ed. E.J. Hathaway, P.T. Ricketts, C.A. Robson, and A.D. Wilshere. Oxford: Basil Blackwell/Anglo-Norman Text Society, 1975.

Gaimar, Geoffrey, L’Estoire des Engleis, ed. Alexander Bell. Oxford: Anglo-Norman Text Society, 1960.

Geste des Engleis en Yrlande: A New Edition of the Chronicle Formerly Known as the Song of Dermot and the Earl, trans. and ed. Evelyn Mullally. Dublin: Four Courts, 2002.

Grey, Thomas, Scalacronica: The Reigns of Edward I, Edward II, and Edward III, trans. Right Hon. Sir Herbert Maxwell. Glasgow: J. Maclehose and Sons, 1907.

Histoire de Guillaume le Maréchal, vol. 1, ed. A.J. Holden, S. Gregory, and D. Crouch.  London: Anglo-Norman Text Society, 2002.

Histoire de Guillaume le Maréchal, ed. Paul Meyer, 3 vols. Paris: Librairie Renouard, 1891.

Jordan Fantosme’s Chronicle, ed., trans., and notes by R.C. Johnston. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1981.

Pierre de Langtoft: Le Règne d’Edouard I, ed. Jean-Claude Thiolier. Créteil: Université de Paris, 1999.

Wace, Roman de Brut: A History of the English: Text and Translation, ed. and trans. Judith Weiss. Exeter: University of Exeter Press, 1999.

Wace, Roman de Rou, trans. Glyn S. Burgess; with the text of Anthony  Holden, and notes by Glyn S. Burgess and Elisabeth van Houts. St. Helier: Société Jersiaise, 2002.

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Legal Records

Baildon, William Paley, ed. Select Cases in Chancery A.D. 1364 to 1471. Selden Society, 10, 1896. TEXT PAGES: 128. ORIGINAL LANGUAGE: Anglo-Norman. TRANSLATION: Yes, facing page. RECORD AUTHORITY: Central Govt-Courts. RECORD TYPE: Chancery Petitions. DATES COVERED: 1364-1471. ARCHIVAL REF: PRO, Ancient Petitions (SC8/3 and others).
COMMENTS: Petitions (bills) addressed to Chancellor asking for a remedy (a writ) to help the complainant bring a defendant to court. The procedure includes the bill and writ; by the 1440s, it also includes the written answer of the defendant. The bills are almost always in French until the reign of Henry V when English becomes the norm. The petitions cover a wide array of problems, including mercantile reprisals, piracy, a surgeon’s incompetence, and suits against foreigners. Extensive Introduction (xi-xlvi) explains the procedures involved. Part I (1-101) contains early Chancery petitions from 1383 to 1412. Part II (103-58) contains selected petitions, most in French. There is also a Glossary and Index.

Keen, M. H. and Mark Warner, eds. “Morley vs Montagu (1399): A Case in the Court of Chivalry,” in Camden Miscellany XXXIV. Camden 5th series, 10, 1997, pp. 141-95. TEXT PAGES: 26. ORIGINAL LANGUAGE: Anglo-Norman. TRANSLATION: No. RECORD AUTHORITY: Central Govt-Court of Chivalry. RECORD TYPE: Court Roll. DATES COVERED: 1399. ARCHIVAL REF: PRO, State Papers Misc. 9/10.
COMMENTS: Records the appeal (charge) of treason brought by Thomas Lord Morley against John Montagu, Early of Salisbury, who was accused of betraying the Duke of Gloucester to Richard II. The text is from a 17C transcript. The Introduction (pp. 141-68) sets the case and the procedures of this court in context.

Leadam, I. S. and J. F. Baldwin, eds. Select Cases before the King’s Council 1243-1482. Selden Society, 35, 1918. TEXT PAGES: ORIGINAL LANGUAGE: Anglo-Norman and Latin. TRANSLATION: Yes, facing page. RECORD AUTHORITY: Central Govt-Courts. RECORD TYPE: Petitions to the King’s Council. DATES COVERED: 1243-1482. ARCHIVAL REF: PRO, Ancient Petitions and
COMMENTS: Extensive Introduction covers procedure before the King’s Council and discusses many cases in depth. The text includes the original petitions to the Council (almost always in French), the answers of the defendants (in French), the advice of the Council (also in French), and the examination of parties involved (often in Latin). The cases include a dispute between Yarmouth and Lowestoft over the right to collect tolls from ships.

Marsden, Reginald G., ed. Select Pleas in the Court of Admiralty. Vol. I. Selden Society, 6, 1894. TEXT PAGES: 17. ORIGINAL LANGUAGE: Anglo-Norman, Latin, and ME. TRANSLATION: Yes. RECORD AUTHORITY: Central Govt.—Admiralty. RECORD TYPE: Court Rolls. DATES COVERED: ARCHIVAL REF: PRO, C47/18/10.
COMMENTS: Extensive Introduction (pp. xi-lxxxxvii) traces the development of the Admiralty court and its powers. The earliest case records the testimony in Anglo-Norman and court proceedings in Latin; “Sampson v. Curteys” (pp. 1-17, with translations on pp. 149-65).

Year Books for the Reign of Edward I. 20-22 and 30-35 Edward I. ed. Alfred J. Horwood. 5 vols. London: Rolls Series, 1866-79. ORIGINAL LANGUAGE: Anglo-Norman. TRANSLATION: No? RECORD AUTHORITY: Law Courts. RECORD TYPE: Legal notes. DATES COVERED: 1346-48, 1356-61.
COMMENTS: The Year Books are notes on cases heard before the Court of Common Bench (and, on occasion, the Eyre Courts) from 1292 to 1535. Written in dialogue form and highly abbreviated, they were composed to provide instruction to lawyers by showing different arguments and legal points. After c. 1363, the court arguments were more often conducted in English, so the Anglo-Norman used in the Year Books tends to deteriorate. Cases usually begin with the action or writ beginning the suit, a brief discussion of the case, and then a verbatim or paraphrased account of the lawyers’ arguments and the Justices’ responses.

Year Books for the Reign of Edward II. London, Selden Society, 1903-in progress.
ORIGINAL LANGUAGE: Anglo-Norman. TRANSLATION: Yes, facing page. RECORD AUTHORITY: Law Courts. RECORD TYPE: Legal notes. DATES COVERED: 1307-1341.
COMMENTS: The Year Books are notes on cases heard before the Court of Common Bench (and, on occasion, the Eyre Courts) from 1292 to 1535. Written in dialogue form and highly abbreviated, they were composed to provide instruction to lawyers by showing different arguments and legal points. After c. 1363, the court arguments were more often conducted in English so the Anglo-Norman used in the Year Books tends to deteriorate. Cases usually begin with the action or writ beginning the suit, a brief discussion of the case, and then a verbatim or paraphrased account of the lawyers’ arguments and the Justices’ responses. All the Selden Society volumes contain Introductions to the material. The volumes include:

  • Bolland, W. C., ed. Year Books 5-8 Edward II. 7 vols. Selden Society, 31, 33, 36, 37, 39, 41, 43, 1915-26.

  • Cam, Helen M., ed. The Eyre of London, 14 Edward II. 2 vols. Selden Society, 85, 86, 1968-69.

  • Collas, J. P., ed. Year Book of 12 Edward II. Easter and Trinity 1319. Selden Society, 25.

  • Collas, J.P., W. Holdsworth and T.F.T. Plucknett, eds. Year Book 11-12 Edward II. 4 vols. Selden Society, 61, 65, 70, 81, 1942-64.

  • Legge, M.D. and W. Holdsworth, eds. Year Book 10 Edward II. 2 vols. Selden Society, 52, 55, 1934-35. The Introductions to vols. 52 and 54 discuss the Anglo-Norman used in the Year Books.

  • Maitland, F. W., ed. Year Books 1-4 Edward II. Selden Society, vols. 17, 19, 20, 22, 1903-07. Introduction of vol. 17 provides a good introduction to the genre, including historical and linguistic background.

  • Maitland, F. W., L. Harcourt and W. C. Bolland, eds. Year Book of the Eyre of Kent, 6 and 7 Edward II. Selden Society, 24, 25, 1909-1912.

  • Stoljar, S. J. and L.J. Downer, eds. Year Books of Edward II, 14 Edward II Michaelmas 1320. Selden Society, 104, 1988.

  • Turner, G. J. and W. C. Bolland, eds. Year Book 4, 5, 9 Edward II. 4 vols. Selden Society, 26, 42, 45, 63, 1911, 1925, 1928, 1944.

  • Vinagradoff, P. and L. Ehrlich, eds. Year Book 6 Edward II. 2 vols. Selden Soicety, 34, 38, 1917-21.

Year Books for the Reign of Edward III. London, Rolls Series, 1883, 1885-1911.
ORIGINAL LANGUAGE: Anglo-Norman. TRANSLATION: No.? RECORD AUTHORITY: Law Courts. RECORD TYPE: Legal notes. DATES COVERED: 1337-46.
COMMENTS: The Introductions to Pike’s volumes are among the best in providing commentary and analysis on the Year Books, which are notes on cases heard before the Court of Common Bench (and, on occasion, the Eyre Courts) from 1292 to 1535. Written in dialogue form and highly abbreviated, they were composed to provide instruction to lawyers by showing different arguments and legal points. After c. 1363, the court arguments were more often conducted in English, so the Anglo-Norman used in the Year Books tends to deteriorate. Cases usually begin with the action or writ beginning the suit, a brief discussion of the case, and then a verbatim or paraphrased account of the lawyers’ arguments and the Justices’ responses. Volumes published by the Rolls Series are:

  • Horwood, Alfred J., ed. Year Books, 11-12 Edward III. 1 vol. London, 1883.

  • Pike, L. O., ed. Year Books, 12-20 Edward III. 14 vols. London, 1885-1911.

Year Books of the Reign of Richard II. London and Cambridge, MA, Ames Foundation, 1914 -in progress. ORIGINAL LANGUAGE: Anglo-Norman. TRANSLATION: Yes, facing page. RECORD AUTHORITY: Law Courts. RECORD TYPE: Legal notes. DATES COVERED: 1378-88.
COMMENTS: The Year Books are notes on cases heard before the Court of Common Bench (and, on occasion, the Eyre Courts) from 1292 to 1535. Written in dialogue form and highly abbreviated, they were composed to provide instruction to lawyers by showing different arguments and legal points. After c. 1363, the court arguments were more often conducted in English so the Anglo-Norman used in the Year Books tends to deteriorate. Cases usually begin with the action or writ beginning the suit, a brief discussion of the case, and then a verbatim or paraphrased account of the lawyers’ arguments and the Justices’ responses. All volumes contain Introductions to the material. Other Year Books of the reign of Richard II also published by the Ames Foundation include:

  • Arnold, M. S., ed. Year Books of Richard II, 1378-1379, Cambridge, MA, 1975.

  • Deiser, G., ed. Year Books of Richard II. 12 Richard II. Cambridge, MA, 1914. Introduction examines Year Book MSS of Richard’s reign, their arrangement and origin.

  • Hector, L.C. and M. Hager, eds. Year Books of Richard II, 8-10 Richard II. Cambridge, MA, 1987.

  • Plucknett, T.F.T., ed. Year Books of Richard II: 13 Richard II 1389-90. London, 1929.

  • Thornley, Isobel D., ed. Year Books of Richard II. 11 Richard II, 1387-88. London, 1937.

Year Books of the Reigns of Henry V, Henry VI, Edward IV and Henry VI. ORIGINAL LANGUAGE: Anglo-Norman. TRANSLATION: Yes, facing page. RECORD AUTHORITY: Law Courts. RECORD TYPE: Legal notes. DATES COVERED: 1421-22 and 1470.
COMMENTS: The Year Books are notes on cases heard before the Court of Common Bench (and, on occasion, the Eyre Courts) from 1292 to 1535. Written in dialogue form and highly abbreviated, they were composed to provide instruction to lawyers by showing different arguments and legal points. After c. 1363, the court arguments were more often conducted in English so the Anglo-Norman used in the Year Books tends to deteriorate. Cases usually begin with the action or writ beginning the suit, a brief discussion of the case, and then a verbatim or paraphrased account of the lawyers’ arguments and the Justices’ responses.

  • Rogers, Ralph V., ed. Year Book 9-10 Henry V (1421-2). Privately printed, 1948.
  • Williams, C. H., ed. Year Book 1 Henry VI (1422). Selden Society. 1, 1933.

  • Neilson, Nellie, ed. Year Book 10 Edward IV and 49 Henry VI (1470). Selden Society, 47, 1931.

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Maritime Records

Foster, Brian, ed.  The Local Port Book of Southampton 1435-36.  Southampton Record Series, 7, 1963.  TEXT PAGES: 126.  ORIGINAL LANGUAGE: Anglo-Norman.  TRANSLATION: English with facing AN.  RECORD AUTHORITY: Borough.  RECORD TYPE: Customs Accounts.  RECORD NAME: Local Port Accounts of Southampton.  DATES COVERED: 1435-1436.  ARCHIVAL REF: Southampton R.O., S.C. 5/4, item 3 COMMENTS: iNTRODUCTION (7 pp) with comments on the manuscript and its author, the language of the accounts, and trade.  The text is divided into four: the Common Book (non-Italian trade), Alien Book (the Italian trade); summary account and audit (pp. 120-3), and two indentures certifying the receipt of funds by the town bailiff (pp. 124-7). There is also a Bibliography (pp. 128-9), Glossary/index of Commodities (pp. 130-34) and Gender index (names and places, pp. 135-40).

Gras, Norman S. B., “A List of Local Customs Due in the Port of Ipswich (?) c. 1303,” in The Early English Customs System: A Documentary Study of the Institutional and Economic History of the Customs from the Thirteenth to the Sixteenth Century. Cambridge: Harvard Economic Studies, vol. 18, 1918, pp. 159-63. TEXT PAGES: 5 ORIGINAL LANGUAGE: Anglo-Norman and Latin. TRANSLATION: No. RECORD AUTHORITY: Borough. RECORD TYPE: List of Tolls due at Port. DATES COVERED: c. 1303. ARCHIVAL REF: PRO, E122/157/12.
COMMENTS: The list is written in an alternating mix of Latin and Anglo-Norman. It consists mainly of the customs due on different types of commodities. There is a similar local port customs list written in Anglo-Norman for Sandwich (in William Boys, Collections for an History of Sandwich in Kent with Notices of the Other Cinque Ports, etc. (Canterbury, 1792, pp. 435-40).

Gras, Norman S. B., “Account of the Custom Collected on Wool, Woolfells, and Hides Exported from Hull, 1275-1276,” in The Early English Customs System: A Documentary Study of the Institutional and Economic History of the Customs from the Thirteenth to the Sixteenth Century. Cambridge: Harvard Economic Studies, vol. 18, 1918, pp. 224-44. TEXT PAGES: 20. ORIGINAL LANGUAGE: Anglo-Norman. TRANSLATION: No. RECORD AUTHORITY: Central Govt. RECORD TYPE: Port Customs Accounts. DATES COVERED: 1275-76. ARCHIVAL REF: PRO, E122/55/1.
COMMENTS: Most of the national port customs accounts were recorded in Latin, but on occasion some were in Anglo-Norman, particularly for the period from 1275 to c.1347. Gras’ Index also serves as a type of glossary since he gives an English translation for most of the commodities listed.

Marsden, ReginaldG., ed. Select Pleas in the Court of Admiralty. Vol. I. Selden Society, 6, 1894. TEXT PAGES: 17. ORIGINAL LANGUAGE: Anglo-Norman, Latin, and ME. TRANSLATION: Yes. RECORD AUTHORITY: Central Govt.—Admiralty. RECORD TYPE: Court Rolls. DATES COVERED: ARCHIVAL REF: PRO, C47/18/10.
COMMENTS: Extensive Introduction (pp. xi-lxxxxvii) traces the development of the Admiralty court and its powers. The earliest case records the testimony in Anglo-Norman and court proceedings in Latin; “Sampson v. Curteys” (pp. 1-17, with translations on pp. 149-65).

Moore, Alan. "A Barge of Edward III," Mariner's Mirror, 6 (1920): 229-42. TEXT PAGES:c.5. ORIGINAL LANGUAGE: Anglo-Norman. TRANSLATION: partial English. RECORD AUTHORITY: Central Govt-Military. RECORD TYPE: Inventory of Ship. DATES COVERED: 1373. ARCHIVAL REF: London Guildhall, Letter Book G, f. 304.
COMMENTS: Inventory of barge provided by city of London to serve the king, called the Paul of London. Translated in H. T. Riley, ed., Memorials of London and London Life in the XIIIth, XIVth and XVth Centuries (1868), but without translating or explaining many of the technical terms, which Moore does provide. Inventory transcribed, but interspersed with author's comments.

Scott, E. and Gilliodts van Severen, L., eds. "Inquisition on Prizes Taken by English Corsairs in Flanders, 1403-15" in Le Cotton Ms. Galba B.I. Documents pour servir à l'histoire des relations entre l'Angleterre et la Flandre e 1341 à 1473. Brussels, 1896. TEXT PAGES: 31. ORIGINAL LANGUAGE: Anglo-Norman. TRANSLATION: No. RECORD AUTHORITY: Central Govt-Maritime. RECORD TYPE: Inquisition. RECORD NAME: Inquisition on prizes taken by corsairs in Flanders. Dates Covered: 1403-1410. ARCHIVAL REF: BL Cotton Ms. Galba B.I.
COMMENTS: Includes depositions of many Flemish merchants and mariners, and names English offenders or their home ports. This is an Appendix (pp 477-508) of larger work that includes letters (mostly temp. Hen. IV) concerning treaties with other countries, instructions to and and responses from English deputies and ambassadors (especially those in Flanders), petitions from English merchants abroad, and letters between the king, council, and foreign nobles.

Studer, Paul, ed. “The Rolls of Oleron,” in The Oak Book of Southampton of c. A.D. 1300. 2 vols. Southampton Record Society, 10 (1910), 11 (1911), pp. 54-103. See also Supplement to The Oak Book of Southampton… vol. 12 (1911). TEXT PAGES: 49. ORIGINAL LANGUAGE: AN & Latin & ME. TRANSLATION: Yes. RECORD AUTHORITY: Borough. RECORD TYPE: Custumal and Register. RECORD NAME: Rolls of Oleron; Guild Merchant Ordinances; etc… DATES COVERED: c 1230-1300. ARCHIVAL REF: Southampton Rec. Off. Audit House.
COMMENTS: The Oak Book of Southampton gathers together various customs and laws practiced in Southampton. Vol. II contains the 14C-Anglo-Norman copy of the maritime laws called the Rolls of Oleron, printed with translation and extensive notes on the language. For corrections on dating of Laws of Oleron used by Studer, see also D. Burwash, English Merchant Shipping 1460-1540 (Toronto, 1954), 171-6. See Supplement vol. of The Oak Book for Notes on the Anglo-French Dialect of Southampton, Glossary, and Indices.

Studer, Paul, ed. The Port Books of Southampton, 1427-1430 [sic]. Southampton Record Society, 15, 1913. TEXT PAGES: 119. ORIGINAL LANGUAGE: Anglo-Norman. TRANSLATION: Only first 13 pages. RECORD AUTHORITY: Borough. RECORD TYPE: Customs Account. RECORD NAME: Local Port Customs Account of Robt. Florys, Water-Blf and Rcvr of Southampton. DATES COVERED: 1426-30. ARCHIVAL REF: Southampton Rec. Office.
COMMENTS: Studer mistakenly dated 1426/7 account as 1427/8. Account for 1426/7 (is divided into part one covering northern trade and part two covering Mediterranean trade, and is printed in full. Only selections from the account for 1429/30 are printed. Introduction (pp. v-xxviii) discusses the ms and its author, the rise of the port of Southampton and its trade. Appendix contains tables summarizing imports and exports (121-42). Glossary (143-60); Index of Ports and Boats and Index of Persons (161-79).

Twiss, Travers, ed. "The Black Book of the Admiralty," in Monumenta Juridica. The Black Book of the Admiralty. Vol. I. Rolls Series, 1871 (vol. I of 4 vols.). TEXT PAGES: 472. ORIGINAL LANGUAGE: AN & Latin & ME. TRANSLATION: Yes-facing page-mostly AN. RECORD AUTHORITY: Central Govt-Maritime. RECORD TYPE: Register & Customary Laws. RECORD NAME: Black Book of the Admiralty, and the Laws of Oleron. DATES COVERED: c1300-16C. ARCHIVAL REF: PRO HC12/1 (rediscovered 1870s).
COMMENTS: The Black Book is a procedural manual, written c. 1450 (but containing much earlier material) for the lord high admiral that includes a compilation of maritime laws, customs, and court decisions. It was lost by 1808 so Twiss reconstructed it from later transcripts and related sources. But it was rediscovered by the time vol. 4 was printed, although Twiss makes little of this fact, and prints corrections to his reconstruction in vol. IV (pp. 132-44) without any comment. The Laws of Oleron were maritime customs established by the early 14c that governed maritime disputes in England and most parts of northern Europe. Vol. I contains: Introduction (ix-xciii) on mss consulted, comments on selections, and table of subjects; the Black Book including the Laws of Oleron (88-131, in AN); Inquisition taken at Queenborough in 1375 on customs of the admiralty (132-77, in AN); Treatise on procedure in admiralty court (178-220, in Latin); Articles of inquiry in admiralty court (221-45, in Latin); Documents connected with Admiralty of John Holland, 1443-6 (246-81, Latin and AN); Statues and ordinances of war (282-99, probably a ME translation of Latin version temp Hen. V) (ME version on pp. 459-72); Order of battle in the court of chivalry (300-44, in AN, but not part of original Black Book). The Appendix contains Documents connected with Admiralty of Th. Beaufort from 1407-26 (347-94, in Latin); Fees andprofits pertaining to office of Admiral (396-411, in AN); Extracts from Statutes of the Realm on Admiralty jurisdiction (412-19, in AN); Ordinances of Philip de Valois (1338) for expedition to conquer England (420-29, in AN); Ordinance (1373) of Charles V on jurisdiction of French admiralty (430-58, in AN). Index (pp. 475-91).

Twiss, Travers, ed. "The Laws of Oleron,” in Monumenta Juridica. The Black Book of the Admiralty. Vol. I. Rolls Series, 1871 (vol. I of 4 vols.), pp. 88-13. TEXT PAGES: 31. ORIGINAL LANGUAGE: Anglo-Norman. TRANSLATION: Yes. RECORD AUTHORITY: Customary Law. RECORD TYPE: Maritime Customary Law. DATES COVERED: early 14C. ARCHIVAL REF: PRO.
COMMENTS: The Laws of Oleron were maritime customs established by the early 14c that governed maritime disputes in England and most parts of northern Europe. The text includes an extensive Introduction (ix-xciii) on mss consulted, comments on selections, and table of subjects in the Black Book of the Admiralty, which contains a copy of the Laws of Oleron (pp. 88-131), as well as an Inquisition taken at Queenborough in 1375 on customs of the admiralty (pp. 132-77, in AN). The edition is supplied with copious notes on mss variants and on the translation. See also the entry on T. Twiss, “The Black Book of the Admiralty” and Paul Studer, “The Rolls of Oleron” in this Bibliography.

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Town Records

Bateson, Mary, ed., Borough Customs. 2 vols. Selden Society, 24 (1904) and
TEXT PAGES: 527. ORIGINAL LANGUAGE: Anglo-Norman, Latin & ME. TRANSLATION: Yes.
RECORD AUTHORITY: Borough. RECORD TYPE: Custumal. DATES COVERED: late 12C-16C.
COMMENTS: Text organized thematically, with each ordinance/custom printed in original language (many in AN) and then translated. Extensive introduction: vol. I, pp. ix-lix. Covers custumals as a source (with a list of all extant custumals she examined). Text covers type of court action (Crime and Tort: arrest, mainprise, appeal, judgements, punishments, trespasses), court procedure (summons, pledges, attachment and distress, essoins, wager of law, debt, contract); real and mixed actions (disseisin, fresh force, waste, landlord and tenant). Intro to vol. II pp. xv-xlvi covers process and execution, contract, alienation and inheritance, husband and wife, rights in land, minority, seignorial claims, wills and intestacy, and borough courts. Appendix on sursise of rent (clvii-clix). Text covers borough courts (pleading, borough officers), seignorial and family law (land, chattels, feudal dues, husband and wife), inheritance, wardship, merchant law, ecclesiastical relations. List of rarer words, pp. 215-16; Index to Custumals, pp. 217-20. Index of matters, 221-

Bickley, Francis B., ed. The Little Red Book of Bristol. 2 vols. Bristol: W. C. Hemmons, 1900. TEXT PAGES: ORIGINAL LANGUAGE: Anglo-Norman, Latin, and ME. TRANSLATION: Yes. RECORD AUTHORITY: Borough. RECORD TYPE: Register. DATES COVERED: ARCHIVAL REF:
COMMENTS: Includes a wide variety of documents including ordinances on trade (many in Ango-Norman), the guild ordinances, the collection of town revenues, the duties of civic officials, and copies of letters received by and sent to other towns, lords, and the king.

Foster, Brian, ed. The Local Port Book of Southampton 1435-36. Southampton Record Series, 7, 1963. TEXT PAGES: 126. ORIGINAL LANGUAGE: Anglo-Norman. TRANSLATION: English with facing AN. RECORD AUTHORITY: Borough. RECORD TYPE: Customs Accounts. RECORD NAME: Local Port Accounts of Southampton. DATES COVERED: 1435-1436. ARCHIVAL REF: Southampton R.O., S.C. 5/4, item 3.
COMMENTS: Introduction (7 pp) with comments on the manuscript and its author, the language of the accounts, and trade. The text is divided into four: the Common Book (non-Italian trade), Alien Book (the Italian trade); summary account and audit (pp. 120-3), and two indentures certifying the receipt of funds by the town bailiff (pp. 124-7). There is also a Bibliography (pp. 128-9), Glossary/index of Commodities (pp. 130-34) and Gender Index (names and places, pp. 135-40).

Furley, J. S. The Ancient Usages of the City of Winchester from the Anglo-French Version preserved in Winchester College. Oxford, 1927. TEXT PAGES: ORIGINAL LANGUAGE: Anglo-Norman. TRANSLATION: Yes. RECORD AUTHORITY: Borough. RECORD TYPE: Custumal. DATES COVERED: composed c. late 13C. ARCHIVAL REF: Winchester College.
COMMENTS: First printed by Edw. Smirke in The Archaeological Journal, vol. 9, pp. 69-89. A Middle English translation made in the early years of Henry VI is printed in Toulim Smith, ed., English Gilds, EETS, o.s. 40, 1870, pp. 349-69. The ordinances relate to the civic government, trade, and pleas concerning land.

Gilbert, J. T., ed. “The Customs of Dublin,” in Historical and Municipal Documents of Ireland, 1172-1320. London, 1870. TEXT PAGES: ORIGINAL LANGUAGE: Anglo-Norman. TRANSLATION: No. RECORD AUTHORITY: Borough. RECORD TYPE: Custumal. DATES COVERED: surviving ms composed in early 14C, but at least parts of the custumal probably date to before 1229. ARCHIVAL REF: Dublin Chain Book, ff. 6-26.
COMMENTS: Gilbert prints the text without commentary, but gives a brief abstract of the contents in his Calendar of Dublin Records, pp. 224-32. Some clauses also translated in Bateson’s Borough Customs. The custumal’s contents cover the duties of civic officials, court procedures, sanitation and safety in the town, debts, inheritance, mercantile dealings and many other issues.

Gras, Norman S. B., “A List of Local Customs Due in the Port of Ipswich (?) c. 1303,” in The Early English Customs System: A Documentary Study of the Institutional and Economic History of the Customs from the Thirteenth to the Sixteenth Century. Cambridge: Harvard Economic Studies, vol. 18, 1918, pp. 159-63. TEXT PAGES: 5 ORIGINAL LANGUAGE: Anglo-Norman and Latin. TRANSLATION: No. RECORD AUTHORITY: Borough. RECORD TYPE: List of Tolls due at Port. DATES COVERED: c.1303. ARCHIVAL REF: PRO, E122/157/12.
COMMENTS: The list is written in an alternating mix of Latin and Anglo-Norman. It consists mainly of the customs due ondifferent types of commodities. There is a similar local port customs list written in Anglo-Norman for Sandwich (in William Boys, Collections for an History of Sandwich in Kent with Notices of the Other Cinque Ports, etc. (Canterbury, 1792, pp. 435-40).

Murray, Katharine M. E., ed. “The Customs of Romney,” in The Register of Daniel Rough, Common Clerk of Romney, 1352-1380. Kent Archaeological Society Records Branch, 16, 1945. TEXT PAGES: 27. ORIGINAL LANGUAGE: Anglo-Norman and Latin. TRANSLATION: Yes, made in 1564, attached to back of volume. RECORD AUTHORITY: Borough. RECORD TYPE: Custumal . DATES COVERED: early 14C.
COMMENTS: The beginning section is missing, but the remaining ordinances (most in Anglo-Norman) cover the responsibilities of the Jurats (the chief town officials), customs concerning trade, the freemen, inheritance, pledges, debts, crimes, and local taxes. The custumal also contains many clauses regarding the peculiar privileges of Romney as a Cinque Ports town. In addition, the editor provides extensive notes comparing Romney’s custumal to that of other Cinque Ports towns.

Murray, Katharine M. E., ed. The Register of Daniel Rough, Common Clerk of Romney, 1352-1380. Kent Archaeological Society Records Branch, 16, 1945. TEXT PAGES: 298. ORIGINAL LANGUAGE: Anglo-Norman and Latin. TRANSLATION: No, but English abstracts given. RECORD AUTHORITY: Borough. RECORD TYPE: Register . DATES COVERED: early 14C-15C, but esp. 1352-80.
COMMENTS: The register contains the AN custumal (see the Bibliography entry above), as well as various letters and petitions sent by or received by the town of New Romney concerning their position as a Cinque Ports town, toll disputes with other towns, protests and inquests about Romney men elected to office at a local manor, inquests on vintners, letters testifying to good conduct of visitors, instructions to tax collectors, letters to foreign port towns regarding ships captured at sea, petitions about military service, and articles for an inquest by a justice of trailbaston. About half of the documents are in Latin, particularly those for the fifteenth-century additions. Index of Places and Names.

Riley, Henry Thomas, ed. "Liber albus," in Munimenta Gildhallae Londoniensis: Liber albus, Liber custumarum, et Liber Custumarum. Vol. I. Rolls Series, no. 12, 3 vols. in 4, 1859-62.
TEXT PAGES: 738. ORIGINAL LANGUAGE: Anglo-Norman & Latin. TRANSLATION: English with AN selections. RECORD AUTHORITY: Borough. RECORD TYPE: Custumal. RECORD NAME: Liber albus. DATES COVERED: up to1419. ARCHIVAL REF: London Guildhall.
COMMENTS: Compilation of civic records, including oaths, fees, and duties of civic officials; procedures, writs, and pleas in city's courts; city charters, ordinances, and trade regulations; customs regarding inheritance, dower, freedom admission, and immorality; misc. letters and other documents. Compiled c. 1419 by John Carpenter, the Common Clerk. Vol. I: Introduction (i-cxii); Summary of contents of Liber albus (cxii-cxxxi). Vol. III (1862) includes translations of Anglo-Norman passages (pp. 3-286, vol. III), along with glossaries of Anglo-Norman and Early English (289-372) and Medieval Latin words 375-407). Appendices contain extracts from the 'Assisa Panis' from 21 Edw I-16 Henry VI; and extracts from the Liber Memorandum, temp. Edw. II. Glossary to appendices; Index of Festivals; and General Index (479-520) and Index to Appendices. // Translation of the whole in H. T. Riley, ed., Liber Albus: The White Book of the City of London compiled 1419 (London, 1861). Some passages also translated in H. T. Riley, ed., Memorials of London and Lodon Life, 1276-1419 (London, 1868). See also, William Kellaway, “John Carpenter’s Liber Albus’, Guildhall Studies in London History, 3 (1978): 67-84.

Riley, Henry Thomas, ed. "Liber custumarum," in Munimenta Gildhallae Londoniensis: Liber albus, Liber custumarum, et Liber Custumarum. Vol. II-Part I. Rolls Series, no. 12, 3 vols. In 4, 1859-62. TEXT PAGES: 490. ORIGINAL LANGUAGE: Anglo-Norman & Latin. TRANSLATION: English selections. RECORD AUTHORITY: Borough. RECORD TYPE: Custumal. RECORD NAME: Liber custumarum DATES COVERED: early 14c. ARCHIVAL REF: London Guildhall.
COMMENTS: Compilation of civic records, including many city charters, ordinances, and correspondence; royal writs and proclamations; provisions to collect taxes; trade and guild regulations; and records regarding duties of civic officials, city revenues, courts, assizes, disputes with other authorities, and various court cases. Vol. II, Part I contains extracts from the Liber Custumarum. Portions now missing (some found in BL Cottonian Ms Claudius D. II (ff. 1-135, 266-77). Introduction (pp. ix-cxvi); Summary of Contents (cxvii-cxlvii). Text. Vol. II, Part II (1860) continues pagination with text to p 490. English translation of selected passages (pp. 517-623). Appendix I (pp.491-503): List of omitted portions: most are printed in Statutes of the Realm (1810), T. Rymer's Foedera (1816-25), and Thorpe's Ancient Laws and Institutes of England (1840). Appendix II: Charter of Wm the Conqueror to London. Appendix III (pp. 505-16): Contents of BL Claudius ms that are in Liber custumarum and Liber Legum Regum 'Antiquorum' (pp. 624-92). Glossary of Anglo-Norman, Saxon, and Early English Words (693-780); Glossary of Medieval Latin (781-838); Glossarial Index of Festivals and Dates (841-44); Index 9847-96).// See also N. R. Ker, "Liber custumarum and other manuscripts formerly at Guildhall,” Guildhall Miscellany, I, no. 3 (1954): 37-45.

Riley, Henry Thomas, ed. "Liber memorandum," in Munimenta Gildhallae Londoniensis: Liber albus, Liber custumarum, et Liber Custumarum. Vol. III. Rolls Series, no. 12, 3 vols. In 4, 1859-62. TEXT PAGES: 26 ORIGINAL LANGUAGE: Latin. TRANSLATION: No. RECORD AUTHORITY: Borough. RECORD TYPE: Register. RECORD NAME: Liber memorandum. DATES COVERED: 1100-1298.
COMMENTS: Extracts printed in Vol. III of series, pp. 430-56. Includes charters, trade and guild regulations; list of portcustoms at Queenhithe; list of early English words used in charters. Compiled c. 1298.

Schopp, J. W., ed. The Anglo-Norman Custumal of Exeter. History of Exeter Research Group, no. 2. Oxford, 1925. TEXT PAGES: 15. ORIGINAL LANGUAGE: Anglo-Norman. TRANSLATION: Yes. RECORD AUTHORITY: Borough. RECORD TYPE: Custumal DATES COVERED: composed c. 1240. ARCHIVAL REF: Devon R.O., Misc. Roll 2.
COMMENTS: Introduction by Schopp and R. C. Easterling (pp. 5-23) discusses the language of the custumal, the manuscript, and the contents of the custumal. Appendix I (pp. 41-50); Appendix II notes clauses cited by M. Bateson in her Borough Customs; Appendix V is a Glossary. There is also an Index. The custumal describes local customary law regarding trade, civic officials, town dues, court procedure, and tolls on goods brought into town for sale. The volume also includes facsimiles of all folios.

Studer, Paul, ed. The Oak Book of Southampton. 3 vols. Southampton Record Society, 10 (1910), 11 (1911), 12 (1911); vol. 12 contains The Supplement to The Oak Book of Southampton. TEXT PAGES: 304. ORIGINAL LANGUAGE: Anglo-Norman & Latin & ME. TRANSLATION: Yes. RECORD AUTHORITY: Borough. RECORD TYPE: Custumal and Register. RECORD NAME: Rolls of Oleron; Guild Merchant Ordinances; etc… DATES COVERED: c 1230-1300. ARCHIVAL REF: Southampton Rec. Off. S.C. 2/1/1/.
COMMENTS: Vol. I Intro (pp. v-xliii) discusses the guild merchant. Text of vol. 1 covers towns obligated to pay toll at Southampton (4-21), ordinances of guild merchant (22-81). Appendices print material from other Audit House mss; Appendix A gives translations of guild ordinances made in 1473 and 1770 (85-115). Appendix B prints 'modern' guild ordinances in use from 15c-19c (116-50) and Appendix C reproduces laws of mayoraly in 1473 (151-60). Vol. II Intro (pp. v-lxxi) discusses tolls, customs and trade at Southampton; assize of bread; rolls of Oleron (including their AN language). Text covers customs (in AN) charged at Southampton c. 1300 (2-17); agreement (in AN) with Salisbury on customs (18-27); assize of bread (28-37); dispute with Bp of Winchester (38-53); laws of Oleron (54-103); charter of Hospitallers (104-117); murage grant; dispute with justices of the county; fragment of accounts from late 14c; concord with Portsmouth (dated 1239); and Inquiry on bounds of town in 1253. Supplement contains notes on the Anglo-Norman dialect of Southampton (1-50); Glossary of AN (51-118); Index of Persons (129-34), Places (135-9), and Subject Matter (140-55). For corrections on dating of Laws of Oleron used by Studer, see also D. Burwash, English Merchant Shipping 1460-1540 (Toronto, 1954), 171-6. See also the entries for “The Laws of Oleron” and “The Anglo-French Ordinances of Southampton” in this bibliography.

Studer, Paul, ed. “The Anglo-French Ordinances of the Ancient Guild Merchant of Southampton,” in The Oak Book of Southampton. Southampton Record Society, 10, 1910. TEXT PAGES: 81. ORIGINAL LANGUAGE: Anglo-Norman. TRANSLATION: Yes. RECORD AUTHORITY: Borough. RECORD TYPE: Custumal. DATES COVERED: composed c. 1300. ARCHIVAL REF: Southampton R.O., Oak Book of Southampton, S.C.2/1/1.
COMMENTS: The ordinances cover aspects of the guild merchant (i.e., the elite merchants of the town whose membership entitled them to trading privileges, the right to elect and serve as civic officials, and privileges in the local courts. The ordinances also include a list of boroughs free of toll in Southampton. Appendix A contains English translations of the ordinances made in 1473 and 1770. Text also published by Charles Gross, The Gild Merchant, vol. II (Oxford, 1890), 213-31, who drew on the transcription in Edward Smirke in The Archaeological Journal 16 (1859), 283-96, 351-2. A translation is in Davies, History of Southampton, 139-51.

Twiss, Travers, ed. "The Domesday of Ipswich," in Monumenta Juridica. The Black Book of the Admiralty. Vol. II. Appendix-Part I.. Rolls Series, 1873. Vol. II of 4 vols. TEXT PAGES: 207. ORIGINAL LANGUAGE: Anglo-Norman & ME. TRANSLATION: Yes-in Middle English. RECORD AUTHORITY: Borough. RECORD TYPE: Custumal. RECORD NAME: The Domesday of Ipswich. Dates Covered: c 1200-1460s. ARCHIVAL REF: BL Add MS. 25,012 (AN), 25,011 (ME).
COMMENTS: Contains Introduction (pp. vii-lxxxvii) on custumals of boroughs in England and N. France, esp. Ipswich; shows similarities between charters of la Rochelle (on maritime customs) and the Laws of Oleron (which are the customary laws, dating from c. 1300, that governed all maritime disputes in England and most of northern Europe). Also discusses other collections of maritime laws in medieval Europe, theories on origins of Laws of Oleron, and much else. Text includes Table of contents (1-13) and customs of Ispwich, which cover all aspects of town life. Remaining part of the volume print the Customs of Oleron and Judgements of the Sea (210-397); the Etablissements (Laws) of the Commune of Royan (in France) (406-29); later additions to the Rolls of Oleron on shipmasters, merchants, and mariners (432-81, in AN). Index (485-500). Note also the Glossary of Anglo-Norman and Gascon Words in Vol. IV, pp. 147-97.

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Letters and Administrative Records

Foedera, conventions, litterae, et cujuscumque generic acta publica inter reges Angliae et alios quosvis imperatores, reges, pontifices, principes, vel communitates (1101-1654).

  • 1st edition: ed. T. Rymer. 20 vols. London, 1704-35. vols. 16-17 ed. Robert Sanderson.

  • 2nd edition ed. George Holmes, 17 vols. London: Tonson, 1727-9.

  • 3rd edition 10 vols. The Hague, 1739-45.

  • New edition (1069-1383) by Adam Clarke, Frederick Holbrook and John Caley. 4 vols. in 7 parts. London, Record Commission, 1816-69 (vol. 4 printed in 1833, published in 1869.) This edition includes many municipal charters. Although incomplete, this is considered the best edition. TEXT PAGES: thousands.ORIGINAL LANGUAGE: Latin, Anglo-Norman, and English. TRANSLATION: No. RECORD AUTHORITY: Central Govt-Diplomacy. RECORD TYPE: DATES COVERED: 1101-1654.
    COMMENTS: Contains a wide variety of diplomatic and official documents regarding England’s relations with other countries, rulers, and religious leaders. Many relate to military and naval campaigns, appointment of various officials, piracy, mercantile reprisals, and a whole host of other issues. Extracted from official documents (e.g., close rolls, patent rolls, fine rolls), diplomatic correspondence, treatises, and charters. Many are in Anglo-Norman. This was a great national work funded at public expense. Rymer was appointed editor in 1693. For description of all the editions, an index, and chronological abstract of editions, see Syllabus of Documents in Rymer’s ‘Foedera’ by T. D. Hardy, 3 vols. (London: HMSO, 1869-85). See also the Introduction printed as pp. 1-xii of vol. I of Foedera (Record Commission, 1816).

Anglo-Norman Letters and Petitions, from All Souls MS. 182, ed. M. Dominica Legge. Oxford: Anglo-Norman Text Society, 1941. TEXT PAGES: 469. ORIGINAL LANGUAGE: Anglo-Norman. TRANSLATION: No. RECORD AUTHORITY: Central Govt. RECORD TYPE: Letter. DATES COVERED: c.1390-1412. ARCHIVAL REF: All Souls MS. 182.
COMMENTS: Includes 412 items to and from various government and ecclesiastical officials. There is a wide variety of documents: official treaties between monarchs, writs of summons, safe-passages, political messages, and personal letters between family members. Many of the letters are anonymous. There is also a glossary of AN terms.

Scott, E. and Gilliodts van Severen, L., eds. Le Cotton Ms. Galba B.I. Documents pour servir à l'histoire des relations entre l'Angleterre et la Flandre e 1341 à 1473. Brussels, 1896. TEXT PAGES: c520. ORIGINAL LANGUAGE: Anglo-Norman & Latin. TRANSLATION: No. RECORD AUTHORITY: Central Govt-For Affairs. RECORD TYPE: Register of Letters. DATES COVERED: 1341-1473. ARCHIVAL REF: BL Cotton Ms. Galba B.I.
COMMENTS: Includes 188 items, 54 previously published in Royal and Historical Letters During the Reign of Henry the Fourth. Most documents are letters concerning treaties with other countries, instructions to and and responses from English deputies and ambassadors (especially those in Flanders), petitions from English merchants abroad, and letters between the king, council, and foreign nobles. Most letters date from 1404 to 1405. Most in Anglo-Norman, some in Latin, and one in ME. Appendix contains extracts from English account rolls of expenses in France to show payments for delivery of letters or rewards to messengers. Appendix also contains an inquisition on prizes taken by corsairs in Flanders, 1403-15, with depositions by many Flemish merchants and mariners (pp. 477-508), and 'conferences' of Bruges, 1364-76.

C. M. Woolgar, ed. “Wardrobe Account for Sir John Mauduyt, 29 September 1312-c. May 1314,” in Household Accounts from Medieval England, Part 2. British Academy Records of Social and Economic History, n.s., XVIII. Oxford, 1993, pp. 585-88. TEXT PAGES: 3. ORIGINAL LANGUAGE: Anglo-Norman. TRANSLATION: No. RECORD AUTHORITY: Seigneurial. RECORD TYPE: Accounts—Household. DATES COVERED: 1314-14. ARCHIVAL REF: PRO, E101/506/19.
COMMENTS: Expenditure by Sir John and his wife, including cloth for livery, wages for household staff, payments to minstrels. Also a short section of receipts.

C. M. Woolgar, ed. “Supporting Documents for the Account of the Treasurer of William de Montagu, second Earl of Salisbury,” in Household Accounts from Medieval England, Part 2. British Academy Records of Social and Economic History, n.s., XVIII. Oxford, 1993, pp. 588-91. TEXT PAGES: 3. ORIGINAL LANGUAGE: Anglo-Norman. TRANSLATION :No. RECORD AUTHORITY: Seigneurial. RECORD TYPE: Accounts—Household. DATES COVERED: 1367-68. ARCHIVAL REF: PRO, E101/509/11.
COMMENTS: Used at the audit of the household account, these documents list payments for wages, debts, and legal services.

C. M. Woolgar, ed. “Account of the Wardrobe and Household Expenses for the Houseold of Edmund Mortimer, Earl of March, 1413-1414,” in Household Accounts from Medieval England, Part 2. British Academy Records of Social and Economic History, n.s., XVIII. Oxford, 1993, pp. 592-88-91. TEXT PAGES: 3. ORIGINAL LANGUAGE: Anglo-Norman. TRANSLATION :No. RECORD AUTHORITY: Seigneurial. RECORD TYPE: Accounts—Household. DATES COVERED: 1367-68. ARCHIVAL REF: PRO, E101/509/11.
COMMENTS: Used at the audit of the household account, these documents list payments for wages, debts, and legal services.

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