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Dr. Mark L. Botton Ph.D










Mark L. Botton, Ph.D.   
 

Professor of Biology and Co-Director, Environmental Science Program                               
Department of Natural Sciences
Fordham College at Lincoln Center
New York, NY 10023


Email:
botton@fordham.edu

About Me:
I received my Bachelor’s in Biology from SUNY - Stony Brook, my Masters in Biology from CUNY - Brooklyn College, and my Ph.D. in Zoology from Rutgers University.  I have been a member of the faculty at Fordham University since 1983. 

Teaching at Fordham University:

The courses that I teach for the Natural Science major on a regular basis include:
General Biology I and II and laboratories
Global Ecology and Global Ecology Laboratory


Additional courses that I teach outside the Natural Science major include:
People and the Living Environment (core curriculum life science course)
Concepts in Biology I and II and laboratories (required for Psychology majors)

Research on the American horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus:
My principal areas of research involve the behavior, ecology and conservation biology of horseshoe crabs.  These animals are remarkable as “living fossils,” having a successful body plan and life-history strategy that predates dinosaurs.  Part of their success is related to their ecological plasticity and ability to withstand a range of environmental conditions such as temperature, salinity, and water quality.  I have used a range of field and laboratory investigations to gain a better understanding of these phenomena.

 A second, interrelated area of research focuses on the controversial horseshoe crab fishery, especially in the Delaware Bay area.  During the Spring, this estuary has the largest concentration of migratory shorebirds along the east coast of North America, and horseshoe crab eggs have been shown to be their major food source.  The expansion of the fishery for horseshoe crabs (which, in turn, are used as bait for eels and whelks) during the 1990’s has led to concerns that overexploitation of the crabs could have detrimental effects on the shorebird population.  My research has addressed questions of habitat quality and site selection in both horseshoe crabs and shorebirds, and we have also made contributions to understanding important aspects of the population biology of horseshoe crabs, such as age, growth, and survivorship.
 


 Opportunities for Undergraduate Research:
 There are many research opportunities for undergraduate students to conduct independent research with different aspects of horseshoe crab biology.  For the past decade, my students and I have conducted a series of laboratory studies on the mechanisms of pollution tolerance in horseshoe crab embryos and larvae.  In collaboration with Dr. Mary Hamilton, my students have investigated the role that stress proteins (otherwise known as heat shock proteins) may play in the animal’s ability to withstand environmental stresses, including thermal shock and pollution.  For students interested in field research, we have had students working at the Rutgers University field station on the shores of Delaware Bay, NJ, and we have also worked at a number of local field sites including Long Island Sound and Jamaica Bay.   

Many of my research students have presented the results of their projects at regional or national meetings of scientific societies, and several of them have been co-authors on publications that have appeared in leading scientific journals (see listing below).

Stipends for summer research students are available on a competitive basis from the Department of Natural Sciences, through the Ambrose Fund. Additional information and application forms are available from the Department Chairperson (LL 813) and the Dean of FCLC (LL821).   



International Symposium on the Science and Conservation of Horseshoe Crabs

 

The International Symposium on the Science and Conservation of Horseshoe Crabs (ISSCHC) was held in June 2007 at Dowling College in Oakdale, NY.  It brought together a diverse group of researchers, ecologists, managers, and educators from North America and southeast Asia.  Participants included biologists who discover processes underlying behavior and population dynamics, medical researchers who mine deep into the pharmaceutical applications, resource managers who work to ensure healthy and viable populations, and educators who creatively share fascinating details about horseshoe crabs with the broader public and future generations.

  www.springer.com/life+sci/ecology/book/978-0-387-89958-9
The Proceedings of the 2007 Symposium have been published in Biology and Conservation of Horseshoe Crabs, edited by J.T. Tanacredi, M.L. Botton, and D.R Smith. 

International Workshop on the Science and Conservation of Asian Horseshoe Crabs 
I was honored to be invited to deliver a Plenary Address at the International Workshop on the Science and Conservation of Asian Horseshoe Crabs, which was held in Hong Kong, China in June, 2011. Asian horseshoe crabs represent an urgent conservation challenge. The status of all three species of horseshoe crabs in Asia is uncertain due to sparse data, but it is clear that multiple stressors, including habitat degradation and human exploitation, have caused declines in virtually all populations. The workshop participants included scientists, conservationists, and educators from Hong Kong, Taiwan, mainland China, Japan, Malaysia, Singapore, India, and the U.S. Our 4-day series of talks, posters, and facilitated workshops established a solid foundation for the pursuit of enhanced conservation efforts and protected status for horseshoe crabs throughout Asia.

 

The International Workshop on the Science and Conservation of Horseshoe Crabs was hosted by the Hong Kong Wetland Park and supported by the Ocean Park Conservation Foundation Hong Kong, the Hong Kong Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department, and the City University of Hong Kong.

Copies of the program and complete PDF versions of the oral presentations can be downloaded from the meeting web page (http://www.cityu.edu.hk/bch/iwscahc2011)


Selected Publications (names in boldface indicate student co-authors)

  

                                                                                       
Greene, M. P
., Hamilton, M. G. and M. L. Botton. 2011. Physiological responses of horseshoe crab 
(Limulus polyphemus) embryos to osmotic stress,  and a possible role for stress proteins (HSP’s). Mar. Biol. 158: 1691-1698.

 

            Judge,   M. L., Botton, M. L. and M. G. Hamilton. 2011. Physiological consequences of the supralittoral fringe: Microhabitat temperature profiles and stress protein levels in the tropical periwinkle Cenchritis muricatus (Linneaus, 1758). Hydrobiologia, 675:143-156

 

Botton, M. L. and R. E. Loveland. 2011. Temporal and spatial patterns of organic carbon are linked to egg deposition by spawning horseshoe crabs (Limulus polyphemus). Hydrobiologia 658:77-85.

            

             Botton, M. L., Tankersley, R. A. and R. E. Loveland. 2010. Developmental ecology of the American horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus. Curr. Zool. 56: 550−562.


Tanacredi, J. T., Botton, M. L. and D. R. Smith (eds.) 2009.  Biology and Conservation of Horseshoe Crabs.  Springer, New York  www.springer.com/life+sci/ecology/book/978-0-387-89958-9


Botton, M. L.  2009.  The ecological importance of horseshoe crabs in estuarine and coastal communities: A review and speculative summary.  In:Tanacredi, J. T., Botton, M. L. and D. R. Smith (eds.) Biology and Conservation of Horseshoe Crabs.  Springer, New York, pp. 45-64.

Botton, M. L. and T. Itow.  2009.  The effects of water quality on horseshoe crab embryos and larvae.  In: Tanacredi, J. T., Botton, M. L. and D. R. Smith (eds.) Biology and Conservation of Horseshoe Crabs.  Springer, New York, pp. 439-454.


Fiorese, C., Yang, S-L., Botton, M. L. and M. G. Hamilton.  2009.  Discovering the differences in heat shock protein expression in the development of Limulus polyphemus.  In: Tanacredi, J. T., Botton, M. L. and D. R. Smith (eds.) Biology and Conservation of Horseshoe Crabs.  
Springer, New York, p. 618. (abstract)


Hamilton, M. G., Worden, A. F., Reilly, M. A. and M. L. Botton.  2009.  Factors affecting heat shock protein (Hsp70) levels in horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) embryos: Effects of temperature and exposure to copper.  In: Tanacredi, J. T., Botton, M. L. and D. R. Smith (eds.) Biology and Conservation of Horseshoe Crabs.  Springer, New York, pp. 621-622. (abstract)

Graham, L. J., Botton, M. L., Hata, D., Loveland, R. E. and B. R. Murphy.  2009.  Prosomal-width-to-weight relationships in American horseshoe crabs (Limulus polyphemus): Examining conversion factors used to estimate landings.  Fish. Bull. 107: 235-243.

Duffy, E. E., D. Penn, M. L. Botton, H. J. Brockmann and R. E. Loveland.  2006.  Eye and clasper damage influence male mating tactics in the horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus.  J. Ethol. 24: 67-74 

Botton, M. L., M. Pogorzelska, L. Smoral, A. Shehata and M. G. Hamilton.  2006. Thermal biology of horseshoe crab embryos and larvae: A role for heat shock proteins.   J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 336: 65-73.

Botton, M.L., R. E. Loveland, J. T. Tanacredi and T. Itow.  2006.  Horseshoe crabs (Limulus polyphemus) in an urban estuary (Jamaica Bay, New York), and the potential for ecological restoration.  Est. Coasts 29: 820-830.

Botton, M. L. and R. E. Loveland.  2005. Perspectives on the status of horseshoe crab research in Delaware Bay.  In: D. A. Kreeger (ed.), Proceedings of the First Delaware Estuary Science Conference: 35.Partnership for the Delaware Estuary(abstractwww.delawareestuary.org/science/_conf.htm)

Botton, M. L.  2005.  American horseshoe crabs.  The tidal exchange (Newsletter of the New York-New Jersey Harbor Estuary Program), Summer 2005: 8 (www.harborestuary.org).

Botton, M. L. and C. N. Shuster.  2004.  Horseshoe Crabs in a Food Web: Who Eats Whom?  In: C. N Shuster, R. B. Barlow, and H. J. Brockmann (eds.), The American Horseshoe Crab, pp. 133-153.  Harvard Press, Cambridge.

Botton, M. L. and B. A. Harrington, with N. Tsipoura and D. Mizrahi. 2004.  Synchronies in Migration: Shorebirds, Horseshoe Crabs, and Delaware Bay.  In: C. N Shuster, R. B. Barlow, and H. J. Brockmann (eds.), The American Horseshoe Crab, pp. 6-32.  Harvard Press, Cambridge.

Shuster, C. N., M. L. Botton, and R. E. Loveland.  2004. Horseshoe Crab Conservation: A Coast-Wide Management Plan. In: C. N. Shuster, R. B. Barlow, and H. J. Brockmann (eds.), The American Horseshoe Crab, pp. 358-377.  Harvard Press, Cambridge

Pooler, P. S., D. R. Smith, R. E. Loveland, M. L. Botton, and S. F. Michels.  2003.  Assessment of sampling methods to estimate horseshoe crab  (Limulus polyphemus L.) egg density in Delaware Bay.  Fish. Bull 101: 698-703. 

Botton, M. L. and R. E. Loveland.  2003. Abundance and dispersal potential of horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) larvae in the Delaware Estuary.  Estuaries 26: 1472-1479.

Botton, M. L., R. E. Loveland, and A. Tiwari.  2003.  Recruitment andsurvival of young-of-the-year in a commercially exploited population of horseshoe crabs (Limulus polyphemus).  Marine Ecology Progress Series 265: 175-184.

Botton, M. L.  2002.  Horseshoe crabs.  Biologist 49: 193-198.

Smith, D. R., P. S. Pooler, R. E. Loveland, M. L. Botton, S. F. Michels, R.G. Weber, and D. B. Carter.  2002. Horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) reproductive activity on Delaware Bay beaches: interaction with beach characteristics. J. Coastal Res. 18: 730-740.
      
Botton, M. L.  2001.  The conservation of horseshoe crabs: What can we learn from the Japanese experience?  In: J. Tanacredi (ed.), Limulus in the Limelight, pp. 41-51.Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publ., New York.

Botton, M. L.  2000.  Toxicity of cadmium and mercury to horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) embryos and larvae.  Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 64: 137-143.

Botton, M. L., K. Johnson, and L. Helleby.  1998.  Effectsof copper and zinc on embryos and larvae of the horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus.  Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 35: 25-32.

Itow, T., R. E. Loveland, and M. L. Botton. 1998.  Developmental abnormalities in horseshoe crab embryos caused by exposure to heavy metals.  Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 35: 33-40.

Botton, M. L., M. Hodge, and T. I. Gonzalez.  1998.  High tolerance to tributyltin in embryos and larvae of the horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus.  Estuaries 21: 340-346. 

Itow, T., T. Igarashi, M. L. Botton, and R. E. Loveland.  1998.  Heavy metals inhibit limb regeneration inhorseshoe crab larvae.  Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 35: 457-463.

Loveland, R. E., M. L. Botton, and C. N. Shuster.  1997.  Life history of theAmerican horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) in Delaware Bay and its importance as a commercial resource.  In: J. Farrell and C. Martin (eds.), Proceedings of the Horseshoe Crab Forum, Status of the Resource, pp. 15-22.  University of Delaware Sea Grant College Program, publication DEL-SG-05-97.

Botton, M. L., C. N. Shuster, K. Sekiguchi, and H. Sugita. 1996.  Amplexus and mating behavior in the Japanese horseshoe crab, Tachypleus tridentatus.  Zool. Sci. (Tokyo) 13: 151-159.

Botton, M. L.  1995.  Horseshoe crab.  In: L. E. Dove and R. M. Nyman (eds.), Living Resources of the Delaware Estuary, pp. 51-57.  The Delaware Estuary Project.

Botton, M. L., R. E. Loveland, and T. R. Jacobsen.  1994.  Site selection by migratory shorebirds in Delaware Bay, and its relationship to beach characteristics and the abundance of horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) eggs.  Auk 111: 605-611.

Botton, M. L. and R. E. Loveland.  1993.  Predation by herring gulls and great black-backed gulls on horseshoe crabs.  Wilson Bull. 105: 518-521.

Botton, M. L. and R. E. Loveland.  1992.  Body size, morphological constraints, and mated pair formation in four populations of horseshoe crabs (Limulus polyphemus) along a geographic cline.  Mar. Biol. 112: 409-415.

Loveland, R. E. and M. L. Botton.  1992.  Size dimorphism and the mating system in horseshoe crabs, Limulus polyphemus L.   Anim. Behav. 44: 907-916. 

Botton, M. L., R. E. Loveland, and T. R. Jacobsen.  1992.  Overwintering by trilobite larvae of the horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus on a sandy beach of Delaware Bay (New Jersey, USA).  Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 88: 289-292.

Botton, M. L. and J. W. Ropes.  1989.  Feeding ecology of horseshoecrabs on the continental shelf, New Jersey to North Carolina. Bull. Mar. Sci. 45: 637-647.         

Botton, M. L. and R. E. Loveland.  1989. Reproductive risk: High mortality associated with spawning by horseshoe crabs (Limulus polyphemus) in Delaware Bay, USA.  Mar. Biol. 101: 143-151.

Botton, M. L., R. E. Loveland, and T. R. Jacobsen.  1988.  Beach erosion and geochemical factors: influence on spawning success of horseshoe crabs (Limulus polyphemus) in Delaware Bay.  Mar. Biol. 99: 325-332.

Botton, M. L. and J. W. Ropes.   1988. An indirect method for estimating longevity of the horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) based on epifaunal slipper shells (Crepidulafornicata).  J. Shellfish Res. 7: 407-412.

Botton, M.L. and R. E. Loveland.  1987.  Orientation of the horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus, on a sandy beach. Biol. Bull. (Woods Hole) 173: 289-298. 

Botton, M. L. and J. W. Ropes.  1987.  Populations of horseshoe crabs, Limulus polyphemus, on the northwestern Atlantic continental shelf.  Fish. Bull. 85: 805-812.

Botton, M. L. and J. W. Ropes. 1987.  The horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus, fishery and resource in the United  States.  Mar. Fish. Rev. 49: 57-61. 

Shuster, C. N. Jr. and M. L. Botton.  1985.  A contribution to the population biology of horseshoe crabs, Limulus polyphemus (L.), in Delaware Bay.  Estuaries 8: 363-372.

Botton, M. L.  1984.  Effects of laughinggull and shorebird predation on the intertidal fauna at Cape May, New Jersey. Est. Coast. Shelf Sci. 18: 209-220.

Botton, M. L.  1984.  The importance of predation by horseshoe crabs, Limulus polyphemus, to an intertidal sand flat community.  J. Mar. Res. 42: 139-161.  

Botton, M. L.  1984. Spatial distribution of three species of bivalves on an intertidal flat: the interaction of life-history strategy with predation and disturbance.  Veliger 26: 282-287.

Botton, M. L.  1984. The diet and food preferences of adult horseshoe crabs, Limulus polyphemus (L.), in Delaware Bay, New Jersey USA. Mar. Biol. 81: 199-207.

Botton, M. L. and H. H. Haskin.  1984  Distribution and feeding of the horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus, on the continental shelf off New Jersey.  Fish. Bull. 82: 383-389.

Recent presentations at scientific meetings with student co-authors

2011   Coastal and Estuarine Research Federation.  “Sublethal effects of pollutants on horseshoe crab embryos: Responses to oxidative stress caused by exposure to copper and cadmium,” M. L. Botton, M. Malin, C. Esposito, L. Cusumano, and M. G. Hamilton.  

2011   International Workshop on the Science and Conservation of Asian Horseshoe Crabs (Hong Kong). “Heavy metal pollution in estuaries: Part 1. Effects on Limulus polyphemus embryo survival, developmental rate, and oxidative stress response,” C. Esposito, M. Malin, M. L. Botton, and M. G. Hamilton.

2011   International Workshop on the Science and Conservation of Asian Horseshoe Crabs (Hong Kong). “Heavy metal pollution in estuaries: Part 2. Oxidative stress response: effects on superoxide dismutase levels in Limulus polyphemus embryos,” M. Malin, C. Esposito, M. L. Botton, and M. G. Hamilton.

2010   New York Marine Sciences Consortium, Fall meeting.  “Heavy metal pollutionin estuaries: oxidative stress response in the Atlantic horseshoe crab,” C. Esposito, M. Malin, L.Cusumano, M. L. Botton, and M. G. Hamilton (Winner, best undergraduate paper award).

2010   Atlantic Estuarine Research Society.  “Superoxide dismutase as a potential biomarker of heavy metal exposure in the Atlantic horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus),” L. Cusumano, M. L. Botton, and M. G. Hamilton.

2009 Eastern Colleges Science Conference, “Stress protein expression in response to osmotic stress in horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus, embryos,” M.Greene, M. L. Botton, and M. G. Hamilton.


2009 Eastern Colleges Science Conference, “Heat shock proteins in the tropical snail, the knobby periwinkle (Cenchritis muricatus),” L. Linetskaya, E. Golikov, M. L. Botton, M.G. Hamilton, and M. Judge.

2009 Benthic Ecology Meetings,“Heat-shock proteins in horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) embryos exposed to varying conditions of osmotic stress,” M.Greene, M. L. Botton, and M. G. Hamilton.

2007 Einsteins in the City Conference, “The detection of heat shock proteins in the tropical marine snail, Cenchritis muricatus,” A. Oprescu, F. LaRosa, and A. Paska.

2007 International Symposium on the Science and Conservation of Horseshoe Crabs, “Discovering the differences in heat shock protein expression in the development of Limulus polyphemus,” C. Fiorese, S-L.Yang, M. L.Botton, and M. G. Hamilton.

2007 International Symposium on the Science and Conservation of Horseshoe Crabs, “Factors affecting heat shock protein (Hsp70) levels in horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) embryos: Effects of temperature and exposure to copper,” M. G. Hamilton, A. F.  Worden, M. A. Reilly, and M. L. Botton.

2005 Societyfor Integrative and Comparative Biology, “Thermal biology of horseshoe crab embryos and larvae: A role for heat shock proteins,” M. L. Botton, L. Smoral, M. Pogorzelska, A. Shehata, and M. G. Hamilton.

2004 Benthic Ecology Meetings, “Temperature tolerance in horseshoe crabs: Therole of heat shock proteins,” M. L. Botton, L. Smoral, M. Pogorzelska, and M. G. Hamilton.

2002 American Fisheries Society, “Recruitment and survival of young of the year horseshoe crabs (Limulus polyphemus) on a Delaware Bay sand-flat,” M. L. Botton, R. E. Loveland, and A. Mengharini.

2001 Benthic Ecology Meetings, “Extended amplexus may explain similar fouling patterns in mated horseshoe crabs,” M. D’Angelo, R. E. Loveland, and M. L. Botton.

2001 Benthic Ecology  Meetings, “Visual impairment of the horseshoe crab: Effects on male mating success,” E. Duffy, M. L. Botton and R. E. Loveland.

 

 

 


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