Fordham University            The Jesuit University of New York
 


Warren W. Tryon, Ph.D., ABPP
Professor
Department of Psychology
Dealy 219
441 East Fordham Road
Bronx, NY 10458-9993
Phone:
(718) 817 - 3787
Email: wtryon@fordham.edu


Curriculum Vitae
Professor Tryon



Cognitive Neuroscience and Psychotherapy:
Network Principles for a Unified Theory

Warren W. Tryon, Ph.D.
Fordham University

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

CHAPTER 2: ISSUES & IMPEDIMENTS TO THEORETICAL UNIFICATION

CHAPTER 3: CORE NETWORK PRINCIPLES: THE EXPLANATORY NUCLEUS

CHAPTER 4: COROLLARY NETWORK PRINCIPLES

CHAPTER 5: EMOTION

CHAPTER 6: SIMULATING PSYCHOLOGICAL PHENOMENA AND DISORDERS

CHAPTER 7: EVALUATION, CRITICISMS AND REBUTTALS

CHAPTER 8: PSYCHOTHERAPY INTEGRATION: PROBLLEMS & ISSUES

CHAPTER 9: CLINICAL APPLICATIONS OF PRINCIPLE 1: UNCONSCIOUS PROCESSING

CHAPTER 10: CLINICAL APPLICATIONS OF PRINCIPLE 2: LEARNING AND MEMORY

CHAPTER 11: CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS OF PRINCIPLES 3 – 12

CHAPTER 12: PSYCHOTHERAPY INTEGRATION: CLINICAL PRACTICE

 

SECTION 1: THEORETICAL UNIFICATION



PART 1: THE PROBLEM

  • CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
    • OUR EXPLANATORY PROBLEM
    • PREVIEW
    • PRELIMINARY ISSUES
      • Clinical Relevance
        • Case Formulation
        • Freud’s Project For A Scientific Psychology
      • Science Relevance
      • Reductionism vs. Emergence
    • THEORETICAL DISUNIFICATION
      • Is Disunification Healthy or Corrosive?
      • Dissolution Versus Integration or Unification
      • Models and Mechanisms
    • NEED FOR EXPLANATION
    • THEORETICAL ISSUES
      • Three Explanatory Problems
        • Toothbrush Problem
        • Grand vs. Mini-Theories
        • No Mechanism Information
      • Three Defective Psychological Models
        • Ingredient Models
        • Box and Arrow Models
        • Statistical Models
      • Two Theoretical Anomalies
        • Functional Theories Lack Mechanism Information
        • No Psychological Substrate
      • Three Possible Resolutions
        • Recall Request for Mechanism Information
        • Deny Anomalies
        • Ignore Anomalies
      • What Constitutes Legitimate Mechanism Information?
        • Biochemical Pathways
        • Neural Cascades
        • Artificial Network Cascades
      • Integration with Neuroscience
      • Psychology Needs Neuroscience
      • Psychology Needs Some Form of Network Theory
        • Resolving Anomalies
        • Learning and Memory
        • Unifying Personality Theory
        • Neuroscience Constraints
        • Informal Network Theories
          • Cognitive Psychology
          • Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
        • Neural Network Coprocessors
        • Innateness
        • Conclusions
      • Emergence is the Explanatory Complement
      • Cognitive Science, Neuroscience, & Cognitive Neuroscience
      • Mature Science
      • Psychology Departments Change Their Names
    • CONCLUSIONS
  • CHAPTER 2: ISSUES & IMPEDIMENTS TO THEORETICAL UNIFICATION
    • PREVIOUS PROPOSALS
      • Unified Positivism
      • Tree of Knowledge
      • No Single”ism”
    • CURRENT TRENDS
    • IMPEDIMENTS AGAINST THEORETICAL UNIFICATION
      • Original Research vs. Replication
      • Professional Identity
        • Individual
        • Collective
        • Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell
      • Personality
      • No Ownership of Scientific Principles
      • No Incentives for Unification
    • REASONS AGAINST UNIFICATION
      • Theoretical Unification as Strait-Jacket
      • Theoretical Impossibility
      • Philosophical Schisms
        • Validating vs. Procedural Evidence
        • Falsifiability
        • Mind vs. Body (Brain)
        • Monism vs. Dualism
        • Reductionism vs. Emergence
        • Hard vs. Soft Determinism
        • Nature vs. Nurture
        • Human vs. Animal Learning
        • Network vs. Rule-Based
          • Consciousness
          • Rationality
          • “As If” Models
          • Learning & Memory
          • Behavioral Limits
          • Emotion
          • Brain Damage/Aging/Medications
          • Existence of Rules
          • Serial vs. Parallel Processing
          • Independence Assumption
          • Mathematical Proof
          • Reasons Against Using Both Models
          • Conclusions
        • Introspection vs. Extraspection
        • Final vs. Efficient Causes
        • Experimental vs. Naturalistic Observation
        • Ideographic vs. Nomothetic
        • Dialectical vs. Demonstrative
    • CONCLUSIONS

     

    PART 2: A PROPOSED SOLUTION

  • CHAPTER 3: CORE NETWORK PRINCIPLES: THE EXPLANATORY NUCLEUS
    • GENERIC CONNECTIONIST NEURAL NETWORK MODEL
      • Parallel Distributed Processing Connectionist Neural Network Models
        • Stimulus or S-Layer
        • Transformation or O-layer
        • Response or R-Layer
        • Simulated Dendritic Summation
      • Neural Architecture Variations (NAVs)
    • PRINCIPLE 1: UNCONSCIOUS PROCESSING VIA THE NETWORK CASCADE
      • Definition of Unconscious Processing
      • Unconscious Processing
      • Empirical Evidence of Unconscious Processing
        • Psychological Science
          • [1] Optical Illusions
          • [2] Dual System Cognitive Models
            • Automatic Unconscious System 1 Features
            • Illusion of Validity
            • Illusory Correlation
            • Illusion of Understanding Bias
            • Confirmation Bias
            • Representativeness Heuristic
            • Availability Heuristic
            • What you see is all there is (WYSIATI)
            • Blind Spot Bias
            • Self-Serving Bias
            • Anchoring Heuristic
            • Focusing Effect
            • Superiority Illusion
            • Substitution
            • Base Rate Fallacy
            • Professional Applications
            • Conclusions
            • Objections
          • [3] Unconscious Thought Theory (UTT)
          • [4] Implicit Association Testing
          • [5] Priming
          • Triarchic Cognitive Models
          • Conclusion
        • Neuroscience
          • [1] Default Mode Network fMRI Studies
          • [2] Split Brain Patients
          • [3] Anatomical Evidence
          • [4] Brain Damage Studies
          • [5] Emotion and Faces
          • [6] Muscle Memory
          •  [7] Parasomnias
          • [8] Medications
          •  [9] Consciousness and Decision Making
          • [10] Biology and Morality
          • The Homunculus Problem
          • Conclusion
      • General Importance
      • Explaining Consciousness
      • Explaining Unconsciousness - Sleep
      • Theoretical Reorientation
      • Conclusion
    • PRINCIPLE 2: LEARNING & MEMORY
      • Synaptic Modification: The First Experience-Dependent Plasticity Mechanism
      • Epigenetics: A Second Experience Dependent Plasticity Mechanism
        • Genetics Primer
        • Jumping Genes
        • Genetic Packaging and Expression
        • Epigenetics Primer
          • DNA Methylation Tags
          • Histone Tail Tags
            • Methylation
            • Acetylation
          • Environmental influences
            • Maternal care
            • Child abuse
            • Compensatory mothering
            • Addictions
            • Social defeat
            • Identical twins
            • Nutrition
            • LTP & LTD
          • Innateness and Instinct
            • Activity Level
            • Taming Foxes
      • Glia: A Third Experience Dependent Plasticity Mechanism
      • Conditioning
      • Learning
      • Culture
      • Conclusions
    • PRINCIPLE 3: TRANSFORMATION
      • Introduction
      • Factor Analysis Analogy
        • Cognition
        • Emotion
      • Conclusion
    • PRINCIPLE 4: ACTIVATION & REACTIVATION
      • Interaction
    • CONCLUSIONS
  • CHAPTER 4: COROLLARY NETWORK PRINCIPLES
    • Principle 5: Priming
      • Repetition Priming
      • Semantic and Lexical Priming
      • Conceptual Priming
      • Emotional Priming
      • Affective Priming
      • Cultural Priming
      • Idea-Motor Priming
      • Active-self Prime-to-Behavior Effects
      • Social Cognition
      • Explaining the Anchoring Heuristic
    • Principle 6: Part-Whole Pattern Completion
      • Introduction
      • Perception
    • Principle 7: Consonance and Dissonance
      • Social Science
      • Political Science
      • Personal Choice as Constraint Satisfaction
    • Principle 8: Dissonance Induction & Reduction
      • Artificial Neural Networks
      • Real Neural Networks
    • Principle 9: Memory Superposition
    • Principle 10: Prototype Formation
    • Principle 11: Graceful Degradation
    • Principle 12: Top-Down & Bottom-Up Processing
      • Bottom-Up Processing: Reification
      • Top-Down Processing: Prospection
        • Internal Working Models
        • Prospection
      • Interaction
        • Listening/Hearing
        • Emotion
        • Placebos & Nocebos
          • Expectation Explanation
          • Neuroscience Explanation
          • Network Explanation
        • Hypnosis
    • NETWORK THEORY
    • CONCLUSIONS
  • CHAPTER 5: EMOTION
    • HISTORICAL OVERVIEW
    • COGNITIVE PERSPECTIVE
    • SUBCORTICAL BRAIN CENTERS
    • MORE ABOUT UNCONSCIOUS EMOTION
    • EMOTION AND FACIAL EXPRESSIONS
    • CIRCUMPLEX STRUCTURE
    • BASIC EMOTIONS
    • THE CIRCUMPLEX EMOTION COLOR WHEEL AND SOLID
    • SECONDARY AND TERTIARY EMOTIONS
    • ENCODING EMOTIONS IN CONNECTIONIST NETWORKS
      • Encoding Emotional Intensity
      • Coding Emotions in the BAM
    • EMOTION AND ILLNESS
    • EMOTION AND BIRD SONG
    • CONCLUSIONS
    • CLINICAL APPLICATIONS
      • Emotional Regulation
      • Normative Cases
      • Clinical Cases
    • CONCLUSIONS
  • CHAPTER 6: SIMULATING PSYCHOLOGICAL PHENOMENA AND DISORDERS
    • NEW TOOLS AND METHODS
    • NEED FOR SIMULATIONS
      • Software Simulation
      • Hardware Simulation
    • SELECTED SIMULATIONS
    • SIMULATED PHENOMENON
      • Stroop
      • Language Acquisition
      • Personality
      • Social Psychology
        • Cognitive Dissonance
        • Attitude Formation and Change
        • Stereotypes
      • Aging
    • PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS
      • Dyslexia
      • Schizophrenia
        • Simulations
        • Synaptic Pruning Evidence
      • Frontal Lobe Damage
      • Hysteria
    • CONCLUSIONS

     

    PART 3: EVALUATION: CRITICISM & REBUTTALS

  • CHAPTER 7: EVALUATION, CRITICISMS AND REBUTTALS
    • CRITERIA FOR EVALUATING THEORIES
      • Prediction
      • Explanation
      • Explanatory Scope
      • Supporting Evidence
      • Falsifiability
      • Clinical Practice
      • Novel Features
      • Novel Predictions
      • Paradigm Shift
    • TYPES OF SUPPORTING EVIDENCE
      • Systematic Desensitization
      • ADHD
      • Depression
      • Psychosis
      • Medication
      • Manipulation and Replication
      • Necessary Condition Thesis
      • Conclusion
    • A COMPARATIVE EVALUATION
      • Explanation
        • Cognitive Theory
        • Psychodynamic Theory
        • Bio«Psychology Network Theory
        • Conclusion
      • Explanatory Scope
        • Cognitive Theory
        • Psychodynamic Theory
        • Bio«Psychology Network Theory
        • Conclusion
      • Supporting Evidence
        • Cognitive Theory
        • Psychodynamic Theory
        • Bio«Psychology Network Theory
        • Conclusion
      • Falsifiability
        • Cognitive Theory
        • Psychodynamic Theory
        • Bio«Psychology Network Theory
        • Conclusion
      • Clinical Practice
        • Cognitive Theory
        • Psychodynamic Theory
        • Bio«Psychology Network Theory
        • Conclusion
      • Novel Features
        • Cognitive Theory
        • Psychodynamic Theory
        • Bio«Psychology Network Theory
          • Novel Feature 1
          • Novel Feature 2
          • Novel Feature 3
          • Novel Feature 4
          • Novel Feature 5
          • Novel Feature 6
          • Novel Feature 7
          • Novel Feature 8
          • Novel Feature 9
          • Novel Feature 10
          • Novel Feature 11
          • Novel Feature 12
        • Conclusion
      • Novel Predictions
        • Cognitive Theory
        • Psychodynamic Theory
        • Bio«Psychology Network Theory
          • Novel Prediction 1
          • Novel Prediction 2
          • Novel Prediction 3
          • Novel Prediction 4
          • Novel Prediction 5
          • Novel Prediction 6
          • Novel Prediction 7
        • Conclusion
      • Paradigm Shift
    • ASSESSING THEORETICAL UNIFICATION
      • Search for Mechanisms Provides Synthetic Perspective
      • Reasons For And Against Network Theory
        • Lockeans
          • Reasons for Bio«Psychology Network Theory
          • Reasons Against Bio«Psychology Network Theory
        • Kantians
          • Reasons for Bio«Psychology Network Theory
          • Reasons Against Bio«Psychology Network Theory
        • Mixed Lockeans and Kantians
          • Reasons for Bio«Psychology Network Theory
          • Reasons Against Bio«Psychology Network Theory
        • Conclusion
      • Acceptance vs. Recognition
        • Accept Theme
        • Reject Themes
        • Reasons for Rejection
    • CRITICISMS AND REBUTTALS
      • Reductionism
      • Emergence
      • Emergence of Psychology From Biology
      • Falsifiability
      • Simulation
      • Catastrophic Interference
      • Highly Distributed vs. Sparse Coding
      • Language Acquisition
        • Chomsky’s Evidence
        • Piagetian Constructivism
        • Humans vs. Cats
      • Circular Logic
      • Connectionist Evidence
      • Conclusion
    • MATHEMATICAL PROOF
    • THEORETICAL UNIFICATION
    • MATURE SCIENCE
    • CONCLUSIONS
  •  

    SECTION 2: PSYCHOTHERAPY INTEGRATION


  • CHAPTER 8: PSYCHOTHERAPY INTEGRATION: PROBLLEMS & ISSUES
    • PSYCHOTHERAPY PROLIFERATION
    • OUR TRAINING PROBLEM
      • Pre-Doctoral Clinical Training Problems
      • Post-Doctoral Clinical Training Problems
    • EMPIRICALLY SUPPORTED TREATMENT ISSUE
      • Reasons Against ESTs
        • Comorbidity
        • Ethnicity
        • Diagnostic Diversity
        • Ease of Conducting Research
        • Prohibiting Some Practices
        • Limiting Professional Choice
        • Overreliance on DSM
        • Conclusions
      • Reasons For ESTs
        • Consumer Protection
        • Professional Ethics
        • Science Base
    • MOTIVES FOR PSYCHOTHERAPY
      • Curative Motive
      • Ethical Motive
      • Scholarly Motive
        • Unintended Implication
        • Evidence is Not Enough
        • Applied Behavior Analysis History
        • Theory-Evidence Knowledge Gap
        • Evidence-Theory Knowledge Gap
      • Conclusions
    • NEED FOR EMPIRICALLY SUPPORTED PRINCIPLES (ESPs)
      • Avoid Purple Hat Therapies
      • Prevent Needless Proliferation
      • Identify Active Ingredients
      • Simplify Clinical Training
      • Return Clinical Practice to a Principled Basis
        • Classical Conditioning Therapies
        • Behavior Therapy
        • Cognitive Behavior Therapy
        • Behavior Modification/Applied Behavior Analysis
    • PSYCHOTHERAPY INTEGRATION VIA THEORETICAL UNIFICATION
    • CONCLUSIONS
  • CHAPTER 9: CLINICAL APPLICATIONS OF PRINCIPLE 1: UNCONSCIOUS PROCESSING
    • A Brief History of Unconscious Processing
    • MORE ABOUT FREUD
      • Sex and Aggression
      • False Claims of Cure
      • Child Sexual Abuse Recanted
    • Unconscious-Centric Orientation
    • Clinical Implications of Unconscious Processing
      • Simultaneous Processing
      • Nonrational Processing
        • Emotion
        • Resistance
          • Post-decision Dissonance Reduction
          • Prototype Formation
          • Pattern Completion
        • Ethics
        • Clinical Reasoning
        • Hard Wired
        • Therapists and Clients
      • Automatic Feelings
      • Gendlin’s Focusing
      • Emotions Unconsciously Distort Cognition
    • UNCONSCIOUS PROCESSING IN PSYCHOLOGICAL TREATMENTS
    • SYMPTOM SUBSTITUTION
      • Psychodynamic Theory
      • Case Conference Test
      • Empirical Evidence
      • Reasons for Negative Results and Rebuttals
        • Postdictive theory
        • Inadequate Understanding
        • Methodological Problems
      • Definitive Experiment
      • Correlated Behaviors
      • Conclusions
    • ASSESSING UNCONSCIOUS PROCESSING
      • Implicit Association
      • Emotional Stroop (e-Stroop)
      • Dot-Probe Task
      • Priming Tasks
    • INSIGHT AS PSYCHOLOGICAL MINDEDNESS
      • Psychological Mindedness Defined
      • Alexithymia
      • Psychological Mindedness and Alexithymia (PM/A)
      • Psychological Mindedness as a Common Therapeutic Goal
      • Alexithymia as a Common Deficit
        • Eating Disorders
        • Personality Disorders
        • Autism
        • Non-Suicidal Self-Injury
        • Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), and Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD)
        • General Adjustment
      • Identifying and Tracking PM/A
      • Choosing the Best Cognitive/ Behavioral Mix
      • Relationship of PM/A to Asperger's Syndrome
      • Conclusions
    • MIRROR NEURON SYSTEM
    • GANDHI NEURON SYSTEM
    • MENTALIZING NEURON SYSTEM
    • FRONTOTEMPORAL DEMENTIA
    • OXYTOCIN
    • CONCLUSIONS
  • CHAPTER 10: CLINICAL APPLICATIONS OF PRINCIPLE 2: LEARNING AND MEMORY
    • THINK PHYSICAL NOT MENTAL
    • EMISSION VS. OMISSION TREATMENTS
    • LEARNING VS. CONDITIONING
    • CONDITIONING AS COGNITION
    • PSYCHOLOGICAL BEHAVIORISM
    • LEARNING ENTAILS MEMORY MODIFICATION
    • CONDITIONING AS EMPIRICALLY SUPPORTED CBT PRINCIPLES
      • Taxonomy of Operant Conditioning
      • Conditioning Principles
        • Reinforcement
        • Reinforcement Schedules
        • Shaping
        • Observational Learning
        • Extinction
        • Deprivation
        • Discriminative Stimuli
        • Stimulus Control
        • Generalization
      • Pitfalls
        • Pitfalls of Positive Reinforcement
        • Pitfalls of Extinction
        • Pitfalls of Shaping
        • Pitfalls of Intermittent Reinforcement
        • Pitfalls of Schedules for Decreasing Behavior
        • Pitfalls of Stimulus Discrimination Training
      • Classical (Respondent) Conditioning
        • Classical Conditioning Treatments
        • Addictions
    • BEHAVIORAL DIAGNOSIS
      • Noncontingent Punishment Conditioning
      • Noncontingent Penalty Conditioning
      • Noncontingent Reward Conditioning
      • Approach-Avoidance Conflict
      • Neurotic Paradox
      • Diagonals
      • Diagnosis
      • Activity Anorexia
      • Evaluative Conditioning
      • Conclusion
    • BIOFEEDBACK
    • Implications for Clinical Practice
      • Learning as Professional Identity
      • Interdisciplinary Teams
      • Psychotropic Medications
    • THEORETICAL ISSUES
      • Selectionism: Ontogenetic Evolution
      • Necessity for Neural Network Models
      • Stability vs. Change
      • Piaget
      • Brain Sciences
    • CONCLUSIONS
  • CHAPTER 11: CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS OF PRINCIPLES 3 – 12
    • Clinical Implications of Principle 3: Transformation
      • Learning-Based Interventions
      • Professional Practice
    • Clinical Implications of Principle 4: REACTIVATION
      • Emotion-Focused Therapy
      • Medications
        • Propranolol
        • D-Cycloserine
          • Animal Research
          • Human Research
    • Clinical Implications of Principle 5: Priming
      • Attention Bias
      • Interpretation Bias
      • Reduced Evidence of Danger (RED) Bias
      • Memory Bias
      • Origins of Cognitive Distortions
      • Cognitive Bias Modification in Children
      • Cognitive Bias Modification in Adults
      • Self-Disclosure
      • Other Clinical Implications
    • Clinical Implications of Principle 6: Part-Whole Pattern Completion
      • Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
      • Explanatory Criteria for PTSD
        • Normal vs. Abnormal Processing
        • Explain Clinical Symptoms
          • Re-experiencing Trauma Through Memory
          • Persistent Avoidance of Stimuli Associated With Trauma
          • General Emotional Numbing
          • Persistent Symptoms of Arousal
          • Comorbidity
            • Generalized Anxiety
            • Depression
            • Substance Abuse
          • Individual Differences in Symptom Severity
            • Factor 1
            • Factor 2
            • Factor 3
            • Conditional Events
      • A More Comprehensive Explanation
      • Therapeutic Mechanism Information
      • False Memories
      • Imagination Inflation
      • False Confessions
    • Clinical Implications of Principle 7: Consonance and Dissonance
    • Clinical Implications of Principle 8: Dissonance Induction and Reduction
      • Why Effective Treatments Work
      • Mechanism Information and Psychotherapy Integration
      • Systematic Desensitization of Anxiety Disorders
        • Reciprocal Inhibition
        • Counterconditioning
        • Habituation
        • Extinction
        • Two-Factor Model
        • Expectation (Placebo)
        • Self-Efficacy
        • Cognitive Restructuring
        • Network Explanation
      • Depression
        • Operant Conditioning
        • Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
        • Interpersonal Psychotherapy
        • Motivational Interviewing
        • Network Explanation
      • Psychodynamic Psychotherapies
      • Integration of Clinical and Experimental Psychology
    • Clinical Implications of Principle 9: Memory Superposition
    • Clinical Implications of Principle 10: Prototype Formation
      • Prototypes as Internal Working Models That Activate Schemas
      • Prototype as Self-Concept
      • Generational Effects
      • Maladaptive Schemas and Schema Therapy
      • Prototypes as Memories
      • Asperger’s Syndrome
    • Clinical Implications of Principle 11: Graceful Degradation
    • Clinical Implications of Principle 12: Top-Down and Bottom-Up Processing
      • Placebos
        • Definitions
        • Placebos Are Effective
          • Direct Effects
          • Side Effects
      • Placebos Equal Antidepressive Medications
      • Mechanism Information
      • Ethical Prescription of Placebos
      • Therapeutic Relationship as Placebo
    • CONCLUSIONS
  • CHAPTER 12: PSYCHOTHERAPY INTEGRATION: CLINICAL PRACTICE
    • A BRIEF HISTORY OF PSYCHOTHERAPY INTEGRATION
    • FOUR APPROACHES TO PSYCHOTHERAPY INTEGRATION
      • Common Factors
      • Technical Integration
      • Assimilative Integration
      • Theoretical Integration
    • Unifying the big five CLINICAL orientations
      • Common Absence of Causal Mechanism Information
      • Integration With Behavior Therapy / Applied Behavior Analysis
      • Integration With The Cognitive Orientation
      • Integration With The Cognitive Behavioral Orientation
      • Integration With Motivational Interviewing
      • Integration with The Psychodynamic Approaches
        • Network Principles
          • Principle 1: Unconscious processing
          • Principle 2: Learning & Memory
          • Principle 4: Activation and Reactivation
          • Other Principles
        • Shedler’s Analysis
          • 1. Focus on Affect and Expression of Emotion
          • 2. Exploration of Avoidance
          • 3. Identification of Recurring Themes and Patterns
          • 4. Discussion of Past Experience
          • 5. Focus on Interpersonal Relations
          • 6. Focus on the Therapy Relationship
          • 7. Exploration of Fantasy Life
        • Other Factors
      • Integration with Emotion Focused Therapy
        • EFT Principles
          • 1. Emotional Awareness
          • 2. Emotional Expression
          • 3. Reflection
          • 4. Corrective Emotional Experiences
          • 5. Emotional Transformation
          • 6. Regulation
      • Integration With Other Psychotherapies
      • Integration With Psychopharmacology
      • Conclusion
    • CLINICAL PRACTICE
      • Clinical Practice
        • Professional Identity
        • Think Physical Not Mental
        • Comprehensive Clinical Practice
          • Therapeutic Goals
          • All Available Empirically Supported Treatments
          • Multiple Treatments
          • Replace Eclecticism
        • Empirically Supported Principles vs. Manuals
        • Conditioning as Cognition
        • Ethical Considerations
      • Clinical Benefits
      • Diagnosis
    • CONCLUSIONS

     

     


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