Researcher Discusses Proposed Changes to Autism DiagnosesContact: Gina Vergel
|Ami Klin, Ph.D.,says that relying on a diagnosis of ASD would allow children to receive treatment earlier.
Photo by Bruce Gilbert
Proposed changes to how autism is defined and diagnosed should allow young children to be categorized sooner, thereby yielding better treatment, said a top autism researcher.
Ami Klin, Ph.D., cautioned that the changes will not eliminate the daily challenges faced by people with the disorder and those who care for them.
Klin, who is best known for the autism research he conducted while at Yale, was a keynote speaker on April 7 at the Eighth Annual Young Child Expo and Conference.
The two-day event, co-sponsored by the Graduate School of Education (GSE) at Fordham and Los Niños Services, drew more than 1,000 parents, educators and other professionals who work with young children to the Hotel Pennsylvania in Manhattan.
In addition to describing the work he plans to pursue as the new director of the Marcus Autism Center in Atlanta, Klin discussed some changes to the definition of autism in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
(DSM), which is being revised.
The DSM is the standard classification of mental disorders used by mental health professionals in the United States. It contains diagnostic criteria for every psychiatric disorder recognized by the U.S. healthcare system.
Professionals use the current edition, DSM-IV-TR.
DSM-V will create a new category called autism spectrum disorders (ASD), Klin said. It also will place people diagnosed as having Asperger’s syndrome in the same diagnostic group as people with autism and pervasive developmental disorders.
Also, whereas there used to be three areas for the diagnosis of autism (social engagement, social communication and interaction, and restrictive behavior as a matter of interest), there will now only be two.
“They have found something we have known for years—you cannot separate social engagement from communication,” Klin said. “Basically, they are simplifying matters and trying to make sure the things that have not been found valid in research are done away with.”
Regarding the much-discussed proposal to change the classification of Asperger’s, Klin said such a decision would be difficult for people who already are identified in that category.
Overall, the changes will allow those in the field to diagnose children prospectively, which is the opposite of how diagnoses are made today.
“Right now, we look at a bunch of people at the age of five and six and 12 and 13, and we create a scheme. Then we go back in time and try to figure out what happened to those children in early childhood that might explain the way they became later on,” he said. “So we rely on information that isn’t very reliable.”
If diagnoses are made earlier, then chances are better that affected children will receive the appropriate treatment, he said
“[Autism] is acquired in the first weeks of life,” he said. “Those children learn about the world differently. It doesn’t mean they cannot be intelligent or do wonderful things in life. They can.”
He admitted that some people oppose the ASD category because they believe that symptoms are not comprehensive enough at such a young age, which might lead to misdiagnoses.
The other potential outcome is when discussing people with higher function abilities, like Asperger’s, they could be defined as having “milder” ASD, Klin said. "They are mild relative to the very disabled individuals with autism, but if you compare them to their peers, those conditions are quite grave,” he said.
Those in the field will learn more of DSM-V as its 2013 release nears.
“But none of that is going to have an impact on the challenges faced by our adolescents and adults,” he said. “Whether they are two or 22, it all starts with social skills moving on to communication skills, and then you have adaptive—real life—skills.
“Anything that is intangible, common sense, intuition—all of that is trouble. Many of our folks don’t take jobs, not because they don’t have the skills, but because they don’t have the niceties for a job interview,” he said.
Klin, one of the country’s most respected autism and Asperger's syndrome researchers, received Fordham’s Excellence in Early Childhood Award at the conference.
“He is a clinician; he treats. He is an investigator; he does science. But most importantly, he is an advocate for families and for children,” said James Hennessy, Ph.D., dean of GSE.
|James Hennessy, Ph.D., dean of GSE (left) presents the Excellence in Early Childhood Award to Ami Klin, Ph.D. (center).
Photo by Bruce Gilbert
Founded in 1841, Fordham is the Jesuit University of New York, offering exceptional education distinguished by the Jesuit tradition to approximately 14,700 students in its four undergraduate colleges and its six graduate and professional schools. It has residential campuses in the Bronx and Manhattan, a campus in Westchester, the Louis Calder Center Biological Field Station in Armonk, N.Y., and the London Centre at Heythrop College in the United Kingdom.