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Medieval Sourcebook:
Caradoc of Llangarfan: The Life of Gildas

The Life of Gildas by Caradoc of Llancarfan can be dated to c. 1130-1150. Geoffrey of Monmouth refers to Caradoc at the end of some versions of his History of the Kings of Britain as being the only person capable of continuing the writing of British history.  Caradoc of Llancarfan also wrote the second version of the Life of Saint Cadog in which Arthur also figures prominently.

1. Nau, the king of Scotia, was the noblest of the kings of the north. He had twenty-four sons, victorious warriors. One of these was named Gildas, whom his parents engaged in the study of literature. He was a boy of good natural disposition, devoted to study, and distinguished for his talents. Whatever he heard from his master he would repeat most diligently, and forgetfulness did not harm him. He eagerly and diligently studied among his own people in the seven arts until he reached the age of youth; when, on becoming a young man, he speedily left the country.

2. He crossed the Gallic Sea and remained studying well in the cities of Gaul for seven years; and at the end of the seventh year he returned, with a huge mass of volumes, to greater Britain. Having heard of the renown of the illustrious stranger, great numbers of scholars from all parts flocked to him. They heard him explaining with the greatest acuteness the science of the seven rules of discipline, according to which men, from being disciples, became masters, under the master's office.

3. The religion of the very wise teacher was magnified and extolled to such a degree by the inhabitants of Britain, in that his equal was neither found, nor could be found, owing to superior merits. He used to fast like the hermit Antony: most thoroughly devoted to religion, he used to pray clad in goat's skin. If anything was given to him, he would forthwith expend it upon the poor. He abstained from milk-foods and honey: flesh was hateful to him: fresh-water herbs were rather a favourite dish with him: he ate barley-bread mixed with ashes, and drank spring water daily. He used not to take a bath, a habit very much in favour by this nation. Thinness appeared in his face, and he seemed like a man suffering under a very serious fever. It was his habit to go into the river at midnight, where he would remain unmoved until he had said the Lord's Prayer three times. Having done this, he would repair his oratory and pray there on his knees unto the divine majesty until broad daylight. He used to sleep moderately, and to lie upon a stone, clothed with only a single garment. He used to eat without satisfying his wants, contented with his share of the heavenly reward; the longing of his heart was after heavenly rewards.

4. He warned men to contemn, he advised them to scorn mere transitory things. He was the most renowned preacher throughout the three kingdoms of Britain. Kings feared him as a man to be feared, and obeyed him after hearing his acceptable preaching. In the time of king Trifinus, he preached every Lord's day in his church by the sea-shore, in the district of Pepidiauc, with a countless number of people listening to him. And when he was once just beginning to preach, the words of the preaching were checked in the preacher himself; and the people were struck with amazement at the wonderful retention. On finding this, St. Gildas bade all who were present to go out, that he might be able to know whether it was owning to one of them that this impediment to the divine preaching was caused; and yet, even after their withdrawal, he could not preach. He then asked whether there was any man or women hiding in the church. Nonnita, who was with child, and was destined to become the mother of the most holy boy, Dewi, answered him: I, Nonnita, am staying here between the walls and the door, not wishing to mingle with the crowd.. Having heard this, he bade her to go out; and when she had gone out he called the people. They were called, and came to listen to the preaching of the gospel. At the close of the sermon, he asked the angel of God the purport of the above-mentioned matter, to wit, why when he had begun to preach he had failed to proceed to the end. And he revealed the matter to him in such words as these: Nonnitta, a saintly woman, remains in the church, who is now with child, and is destined, with great grace, to give birth to a boy whom thou couldst not preach, the divine power withholding thy speech. The boy this is to come will be of greater grace: no one in your parts will equal him.  

"To him will I leave this part of the country: he will quickly grow and flourish form one period of life to another. For an angel, the messenger of God declared to me this as my true destiny." Whence it happened that the most holy preacher Gildas crossed over to Ireland, where he converted a great number of people to the Catholic faith.

5. St. Gildas was the contemporary of Arthur, the king of the whole of Britain, whom he loved exceedingly, and whom he always desired to obey. Nevertheless his twenty-three brothers constantly rose up against the afore-mentioned rebellious king, refusing to own him as their lord; but they often routed and drove him out from forest and battle-field. Hueil, the elder brother, an active warrior and most distinguished soldier, submitted to no king, not even to Arthur. He used to harass the latter, and to provoke the greatest anger between them both. He would often swoop down from Scotland, set up conflagrations, and carry off spoils with victory and renown. In consequence, the king of all Britain, on hearing that the high-spirited youth had done such things and was doing similar things, pursued the victorious and excellent youth, who, as the inhabitants used to assert and hope, was destined to be king. In the hostile pursuit and council of war held on the island of Minau, he killed the young plunderer. After the murder the victorious Arthur returned, rejoicing greatly that he had overcome his bravest enemy. Gildas, historian of the Britons, who was staying in Ireland directing studies and preaching in the city of Armagh, heard that his brother had been slain by King Arthur. He was grieved at hearing the news, wept with lamentation, as a dear brother for a dear brother. He prayed daily for his brother's spirit; and, moreover, he used to pray for Arthur, his brother's persecutor and murderer, fulfilling the apostolic commandment, which says: Love those who persecute you, and do good to them that hate you. [Luke vi, 27]

6. Meanwhile, the most holy Gildas, the venerable historian, came to Britain, bringing with him a very beautiful and sweet-sounding bell, which he vowed to offer as a gift to the Bishop of the Roman Church. He spent the night as a guest honourably entertained by the venerable abbot Cadocus, in Nant Carban. The latter pointed out the bell to him, and after pointing to it, handled it; and after handling it wished to buy it at a great price; but its possessor would not sell it. When king Arthur and the chief bishops and abbots of all Britain heard of the arrival of Gildas the Wise, large numbers from among the clergy and people gathered together to reconcile Arthur for the above-mentioned murder. But Gildas, as he had done when he first heard the news of his brother's death, was courteous to his enemy, kissed him as he prayed for forgiveness, and with a most tender heart blessed him as the other kissed in return. When this was done, king Arthur, in grief and tears, accepted penance imposed by the bishops who were present, and led an amended course, as far as he could, until the close of his life.

7. Then the illustrious Gildas, a peace-making and Catholic man, visited Rome, and presented the afore-mentioned bell to the Bishop of the Roman Church; but when the bell was shaken by the hands of the bishop, it would give forth no sound. Therefore, on seeing this, he thus said: O thou, man beloved of God and men, reveal unto me what happened unto thee on thy journey to make this presentation. And he revealed that the most holy Cadoc, abbot of the church of Nancarvan, had wished to buy the bell, but that he had refused to sell what he had vowed to offer to the apostle St. Peter. When the Apostolic bishop heard this, he said: I know the venerable abbot Cadoc, who seven times visited this city, and Jerusalem three times, after countless dangers and incessant toil. I consent that, if he comes again and wishes to possess it, thou mayst give it to him. For, in consequence of this present miracle, it has been decreed that he should have it.  Gildas, therefore, took back the bell after it was blessed, and returned; he brought it back and bestowed it gratutitously upon St. Cadoc. When received by the hands of the abbot and struck, it forthwith sounded, to the surprise of all. Then it remained as an asylum for all who carried it throughout the whole of Gwalia (Gualiuam), and whosoever swore illegally throughout that land, he was deprived of his tongue, or if an evil-doer would straightaway confess the crime.

8. Cadoc, the abbot of the church of Nancarban, asked the teacher Gildas to superintend the studies of his schools for the space of one year; and one being requested, he superintended them most advantageously, receiving no fee from the scholars except the prayers of the clergy and scholars. And there he himself wrote out the work of the four evangelists, a work that still remains in the church of St. Cadoc, covered all over with gold and silver in honour of God, of the holy writer, and of the Gospels. The inhabitants of Wales (Walenses) hold this volume as the most valuable possession in their oaths, neither dare to open it in order to look into it, nor confirm peace and friendship between hostile parties, unless it be present, specifically placed there for the purpose.

9. At the close of the year, and when the scholars were retiring from study, the saintly abbot Cadoc and the excellent master Gildas, mutually agreed to repair to two islands, viz., Ronech and Echin. Cadoc landed on the one nearer to Wales, and Gildas in the one that lies over against England. They were unwilling to be hindered in the church offices by the conflux of men; and on this account, they could think of no better plan that to leave the valley of Carvan and resort to the secrecy of an island. Gildas founded there an oratory in honour of the holy and indivisible Trinity, and close by it was his bed-chamber. It was not in it, however, that he had his bed, but placed on a steep cliff, where, upon a stone he lay until midnight, watching and praying to Almighty God. Then he would enter the church quite faint with cold; but, for God's sake, the cold was sweet and endurable to him. He used to take some small fish in a net, and eggs from bird's nests; and it was on this, which sufficed him for nourishment, that he lived. The one used to visit the other. This mode of living lasted for the space of seven years.

10. The supreme Creator, seeing that his chosen servant, Gildas had no constant supply of water beyond the drops of rain which fell upon stones and were caught as they trickled down, caused a stream to flow out from a steep cliff -- and out it flowed, and still flows out, and will remain constant without exhaustion. While St. Gildas was thus persevering, devoting himself to fasting and prayers, pirates came from the islands of Orcades, who harassed him snatching off his servants from him when at their duties, and carrying them off to exile, along with spoils and all the furniture of their dwelling. Being thereby exceedingly distressed, he could not remain there any longer: he left the island, embarked on board a small ship, and, in great grief, put in at Glastonia, at the time when king Melvas was reigning in the summer country. He was received with much welcome by the abbot of Glastonia, and taught the brethren and the scattered people, sowing the precious seed of heavenly doctrine. It was there that he wrote the history of the kings of Britain. Glastonia, that is, the glassy city, which took its name from glass, is a city that had its name originally in the British tongue. It was besieged by the tyrant Arthur with a countless multitude on account of his wife Gwenhwyfar, whom the aforesaid wicked king had violated and carried off, and brought there for protection, owing to the asylum afforded by the invulnerable position due to the fortifications of thickets of reed, river, and marsh. The rebellious king had searched for the queen throughout the course of one year, and at last heard that she remained there. Thereupon he roused the armies of the whole of Cornubia and Dibneria; war was prepared between the enemies.

11. When he saw this, the abbot of Glastonia, attended by the clergy and Gildas the Wise, stepped in between the contending armies, and in a peaceable manner advised his king, Melvas, to restore the ravished lady. Accordingly, she who was to be restored, was restored in peace and good will. When these things were done, the two kings gave the abbot a gift of many domains; and they came to visit the temple of St. Mary and to pray, while the abbot confirmed the beloved brotherhood in return for peace they enjoyed and the benefits which they conferred, and were more abundantly about to confer. Then the kings reconciled, promising reverently to obey the most venerable abbot of Glastonia, and never violate the most sacred place nor even the districts adjoining the chief's seat.

12. When he had obtained permission from the abbot of Glastonia and his clergy and people, the most devout Gildas desired to live a hermit's life upon the bank of a river close to Glastonia, and he actually accomplished his object. He built a church there in the name of the holy and indivisible Trinity, in which he fasted and prayed assiduously, clad in goat's hair, giving to all an irreproachable example of a good religious life. Holy men used to visit him from distant parts of Britain, and when advised, returned and cherished with delight the encouragements and counsels they had heard from him.

13. He fell sick at last, and was weighed down with illness. He summoned the abbot of Glastonia to him, and asked him, with great piety, when the end of his life had come, to cause his body to be borne to the abbey of Glastonia, which he loved exceedingly. When the abbot promised to observe his requests, and was grieved at the requests he had heard, and shed copious tears, St. Gildas, being now very ill, expired, while many were looking at the angelic brightness around his fragrant body, and angels were attending upon his soul. After the mournful words of commemoration were over, the very light body was removed by the brethren into the abbey; and amid very loud wailing and with the most befitting funeral rites, he was buried in the middle of the pavement of St. Mary's church; and his soul rested, rests, and will rest, in heavenly repose. Amen.

14. Glastonia was of old called Ynisgutrin, and is still called so by the British inhabitants. Ynis in the British language is insula in Latin, and gutrin (made of glass). But after the coming of the English and the expulsion of the Britons, that is, the Welsh, it received a fresh name, Glastigberi, according to the formation of the first name, that is English glass, Latin vitrum, and beria a city; then Glastinberia, that is, the City of Glass.

Caradoc of Nancarban's are the words;

Who reads, may he correct; so wills the author.


Source.

Source: Hugh Williams, translator. Two Lives of Gildas by a monk of Ruys and Caradoc of Llancarfan. First published in the Cymmrodorion Record Series, 1899. Facsimilie reprint by Llanerch Publishers, Felinfach, 1990.

This edition contains both Lives of Gildas in both Latin and English, plus notes. Only the English translation is provided here. For additional information see this text from Llanerch or the Gildas the Wise page from the website Early Medieval Resources for Britain, Ireland and Brittany.

This text has been prepared for the internet by Michelle Ziegler, 2000 as part of the website Early Medieval Resources for Britain, Ireland and Brittany. It appears here by permission.


This text is part of the Internet Medieval Source Book. The Sourcebook is a collection of public domain and copy-permitted texts related to medieval and Byzantine history.

Unless otherwise indicated the specific electronic form of the document is copyright. Permission is granted for electronic copying, distribution in print form for educational purposes and personal use. If you do reduplicate the document, indicate the source. No permission is granted for commercial use.

Paul Halsall, March 4, 2001
halsall@fordham.edu