Modern History Sourcebook:
The Treaty of Greenville, 1795
TREATY OF GREENVILLE WYANDOTS, DELAWARES,
[concluded August 3, 1795]
A treaty of peace between the United States of America,
and the tribes of Indians called the Wyandots, Delawares, Shawanees,
Ottawas, Chippewas, Pattawatimas, Miamis, Eel Rivers, Weas, Kickapoos,
Piankeshaws, and Kaskaskias.
To put an end to a destructive war, to settle all controversies,
and to restore harmony and friendly intercourse between the said
United States and Indian tribes, Anthony Wayne, major general
commanding the army of the United States, and sole commissioner
for the good purposes above mentioned, and the said tribes of
Indians, by their sachems, chiefs, and warriors, met together
at Greenville, the head quarters of the said army, have agreed
on the following articles, which, when ratified by the President,
with the advice and consent of the Senate of the United States,
shall be binding on them and the said Indian tribes.
Art. 1: Henceforth all hostilities shall cease; peace is hereby
established, and shall be perpetual; and a friendly intercourse
shall take place between the said United States and Indian tribes.
Art. 2: All prisoners shall, on both sides, be restored. The Indians,
prisoners to the United States, shall be immediately set at liberty.
The people of the United States, still remaining prisoners among
the Indians, shall be delivered up in ninety days from the date
hereof, to the general or commanding officer at Greenville, fort
Wayne, or fort Defiance; and ten chiefs of the said tribes shall
remain at Greenville as hostages, until the delivery of the prisoners
shall be effected.
Art. 3: The general boundary line between the lands of the United
States and the lands of the said Indian tribes, shall begin at
the mouth of Cayahoga river, and run thence up the same to the
portage, between that and the Tuscarawas branch of the Muskingum,
thence down that branch to the crossing place above fort Lawrence,
thence westerly to a fork of that branch of the Great Miami river,
running into the Ohio, at or near which fork stood Loromie's store,
and where commences the portage between the Miami of the Ohio,
and St. Mary's river, which is a branch of the Miami which runs
into lake Erie; thence a westerly course to fort Recovery, which
stands on a branch of the Wabash; thence southwesterly in a direct
line to the Ohio, so as to intersect that river opposite the mouth
of Kentucke or Cuttawa river. And in consideration of the peace
now established; of the goods formerly received from the United
States; of those now to be delivered; and of the yearly delivery
of goods now stipulated to be made hereafter; and to indemnify
the United States for the injuries and expenses they have sustained
during the war, the said Indian tribes do hereby cede and relinquish
forever, all their claims to the lands lying eastwardly and southwardly
of the general boundary line now described: and these lands, or
any part of them, shall never hereafter be made a cause or pretence,
on the part of the said tribes, or any of them, of war or injury
to the United States, or any of the people thereof.
And for the same considerations, and as an evidence of the returning
friendship of the said Indian tribes, of their confidence in the
United States, and desire to provide for their accommodations,
and for that convenient intercourse which will be beneficial to
both parties, the said Indian tribes do also cede to the United
States the following pieces of land, to wit: 1) One piece of land
six miles square, at or near Loromie's store, before mentioned.
2) One piece two miles square, at the head of the navigable water
or landing, on the St. Mary's river, near Girty's town. 3) One
piece six miles square, at the head of the navigable water of
the Auglaize river. 4) One piece six miles square, at the confluence
of the Auglaize and Miami rivers, where fort Defiance now stands.
5) One piece six miles square, at or near the confluence of the
rivers St. Mary's and St. Joseph's, where fort Wayne now stands,
or near it. 6) One piece two miles square, on the Wabash river,
at the end of the portage from the Miami of the lake, and about
eight miles westward from fort Wayne. 7) One piece six miles square,
at the Ouatanon, or Old Wea towns, on the Wabash river. 8) One
piece twelve miles square, at the British fort on the Miami of
the lake, at the foot of the rapids. 9) One piece six miles square,
at the mouth of the said river, where it empties into the lake.
10) One piece six miles square, upon Sandusky lake, where a fort
formerly stood. 11) One piece two miles square, at the lower rapids
of Sandusky river. 12) The post of Detroit, and all the land to
the north, the west and the south of it, of which the Indian title
has been extinguished by gifts or grants to the French or English
governments: and so much more land to be annexed to the district
of Detroit, as shall be comprehended between the river Rosine,
on the south, lake St. Clair on the north, and a line, the general
course whereof shall be six miles distant from the west end of
lake Erie and Detroit river. 13) The post of Michilimackinac,
and all the land on the island on which that post stands, and
the main land adjacent, of which the Indian title has been extinguished
by gifts or grants to the Frewnch or English governments; and
a piece of land on the main to the north of the island, to measure
six miles, on lake Huron, or the strait between lakes Huron and
Michigan, and to extend three miles back from the water of the
lake or strait; and also, the Island De Bois Blane, being an extra
and voluntary gift of the Chippewa nation. 14) One piece of land
six miles square, at the mouth of Chikago river, emptying into
the southwest end of lake Michigan, where a fort formerly stood.
15) One piece twelve miles square, at or near the mouth of the
Illinois river, emptying into the Mississippi. 16) One piece six
miles square, at the old Piorias fort and village near the south
end of the Illinois lake, on said Illinois river. And whenever
the United States shall think proper to survey and mark the boundaries
of the lands hereby ceded to them, they shall give timely notice
thereof to the said tribes of Indians, that they may appoint some
of their wise chiefs to attend and see that the lines are run
according to the terms of this treaty.
And the said Indian tribes will allow to the people of the United
States a free passage by land and by water, as one and the other
shall be found convenient, through their country, along the chain
of posts hereinbefore mentioned; that is to say, from the commencement
of the portage aforesaid, at or near Loromie's store, thence along
said portage to the St. Mary's, and down the same to fort Wayne,
and then down the Miami, to lake Erie; again, from the commencement
of the portage at or near Loromie's store along the portage from
thence to the river Auglaize, and down the same to its junction
with the Miami at fort Defiance; again, from the commencement
of the portage aforesaid, to Sandusky river, and down the same
to Sandusky bay and lake Erie, and from Sandusky to the post which
shall be taken at or near the foot of the Rapids of the Miami
of the lake; and from thence to Detroit. Again, from the mouth
of Chikago, to the commencement of the portage, between that river
and the Illinois, and down the Illinois river to the Mississippi;
also, from fort Wayne, along the portage aforesaid, which leads
to the Wabash, and then down the Wabash to the Ohio. And the said
Indian tribes will also allow to the people of the United States,
the free use of the harbors and mouths of rivers along the lakes
adjoining the Indian lands, for sheltering vessels and boats,
and liberty to land their cargoes where necessary for their safety.
Art. 4: In consideration of the peace now established, and of
the cessions and relinquishments of lands made in the preceding
article by the said tribes of Indians, and to manifest the liberality
of the United States, as the great means of rendering this peace
strong and perpetual, the United States relinquish their claims
to all other Indian lands northward of the river Ohio, eastward
of the Mississippi, and westward and southward of the Great Lakes
and the waters, uniting them, according to the boundary line agreed
on by the United States and the King of Great Britain, in the
treaty of peace made between them in the year 1783. But from this
relinquishment by the United States, the following tracts of land
are explicitly excepted:
1st. The tract on one hundred and fifty thousand acres near the
rapids of the river Ohio, which has been assigned to General Clark,
for the use of himself and his warriors.
2nd. The post of St. Vincennes, on the River Wabash, and the lands
adjacent, of which the Indian title has been extinguished.
3rd. The lands at all other places in possession of the French
people and other white settlers among them, of which the Indian
title has been extinguished as mentioned in the 3d article; and
4th. The post of fort Massac towards the mouth of the Ohio. To
which several parcels of land so excepted, the said tribes relinquish
all the title and claim which they or any of them may have.
And for the same considerations and with the same views as above
mentioned, the United States now deliver to the said Indian tribes
a quantity of goods to the value of twenty thousand dollars, the
receipt whereof they do hereby acknowledge; and henceforward every
year, forever, the United States will deliver, at some convenient
place northward of the river Ohio, like useful goods, suited to
the circumstances of the Indians, of the value of nine thousand
five hundred dollars; reckoning that value at the first cost of
the goods in the city or place in the United States where they
shall be procured. The tribes to which those goods are to be annually
delivered, and the proportions in which they are to be delivered,
are the following:
1st. To the Wyandots, the amount of one thousand dollars.
2nd. To the Delawares, the amount of one thousand dollars.
3rd. To the Shawanees, the amount of one thousand dollars.
4th. To the Miamis, the amount of one thousand dollars.
5th. To the Ottawas, the amount of one thousand dollars.
6th. To the Chippewas, the amount of one thousand dollars.
7th. To the Pattawatimas, the amount of one thousand dollars,
8th. To the Kickapoo, Wea, Eel River, Piankeshaw, and Kaskaskia
tribes, the amount of five hundred dollars each.
Provided, that if either of the said tribes shall hereafter, at
an annual delivery of their share of the goods aforesaid, desire
that a part of their annuity should be furnished in domestic animals,
implements of husbandry, and other utensils convenient for them,
and in compensation to useful artificers who may reside with or
near them, and be employed for their benefit, the same shall,
at the subsequent annual deliveries, be furnished accordingly.
Art. 5: To prevent any misunderstanding about the Indian lands
relinquished by the United States in the fourth article, it is
now explicitly declared, that the meaning of that relinquishment
is this: the Indian tribes who have a right to those lands, are
quietly to enjoy them, hunting, planting, and dwelling thereon,
so long as they please, without any molestation from the United
States; but when those tribes, or any of them, shall be disposed
to sell their lands, or any part of them, they are to be sold
only to the United States; and until such sale, the United States
will protect all the said Indian tribes in the quiet enjoyment
of their lands against all citizens of the United States, and
against all other white persons who intrude upon the same. And
the said Indian tribes again acknowledge themselves to be under
the protection of the said United States, and no other power whatever.
Art. 6: If any citizen of the United States, or any other white
person or persons, shall presume to settle upon the lands now
relinquished by the United States, such citizen or other person
shall be out of the protection of the United States; and the Indian
tribe, on whose land the settlement shall be made, may drive off
the settler, or punish him in such manner as they shall think
fit; and because such settlements, made without the consent of
the United States, will be injurious to them as well as to the
Indians, the United States shall be at liberty to break them up,
and remove and punish the settlers as they shall think proper,
and so effect that protection of the Indian lands herein before
Art. 7: The said tribes of Indians, parties to this treaty, shall
be at liberty to hunt within the territory and lands which they
have now ceded to the United States, without hindrance or molestation,
so long as they demean themselves peaceably, and offer no injury
to the people of the United States.
Art. 8: Trade shall be opened with the said Indian tribes; and
they do hereby respectively engage to afford protection to such
persons, with their property, as shall be duly licensed to reside
among them for the purpose of trade; and to their agents and servants;
but no person shall be permitted to reside among them for the
purpose of trade; and to their agents and servants; but no person
shall be permitted to reside at any of their towns or hunting
camps, as a trader, who is not furnished with a license for that
purpose, under the hand and seal of the superintendent of the
department northwest of the Ohio, or such other person as the
President of the United States shall authorize to grant such licenses;
to the end, that the said Indians may not be imposed on in their
trade.* And if any licensed trader shall abuse his privilege by
unfair dealing, upon complaint and proof thereof, his license
shall be taken from him, and he shall be further punished according
to the laws of the United States. And if any person shall intrude
himself as a trader, without such license, the said Indians shall
take and bring him before the superintendent, or his deputy, to
be dealt with according to law. And to prevent impositions by
forged licenses, the said Indians shall, at lease once a year,
give information to the superintendent, or his deputies, on the
names of the traders residing among them.
Art. 9: Lest the firm peace and friendship now established, should
be interrupted by the misconduct of individuals, the United States,
and the said Indian tribes agree, that for injuries done by individuals
on either side, no private revenge or retaliation shall take place;
but instead thereof, complaint shall be made by the party injured,
to the other: by the said Indian tribes or any of them, to the
President of the United States, or the superintendent by him appointed;
and by the superintendent or other person appointed by the President,
to the principal chiefs of the said Indian tribes, or of the tribe
to which the offender belongs; and such prudent measures shall
then be taken as shall be necessary to preserve the said peace
and friendship unbroken, until the legislature (or great council)
of the United States, shall make other equitable provision in
the case, to the satisfaction of both parties. Should any Indian
tribes meditate a war against the United States, or either of
them, and the same shall come to the knowledge of the before mentioned
tribes, or either of them, they do hereby engage to give immediate
notice thereof to the general, or officer commanding the troops
of the United States, at the nearest post.
*See, in relation to this licensed trade, the "first explanatory
article" of the treaty of amity, commerce, and navigation,
between the United States and Great Britain, of the 19th of November,
1794. And should any tribe, with hostile intentions against the
United States, or either of them, attempt to pass through their
country, they will endeavor to prevent the same, and in like manner
give information of such attempt, to the general, or officer commanding,
as soon as possible, that all causes of mistrust and suspicion
may be avoided between them and the United States. In like manner,
the United States shall give notice to the said Indian tribes
of any harm that may be meditated against them, or either of them,
that shall come to their knowledge; and do all in their power
to hinder and prevent the same, that the friendship between them
may be uninterrupted.
Art. 10: All other treaties heretofore made between the United
States, and the said Indian tribes, or any of them, since the
treaty of 1783, between the United States and Great Britain, that
come within the purview of this treaty, shall henceforth cease
and become void.
In testimony whereof, the said Anthony Wayne, and the sachems
and war chiefs of the before mentioned nations and tribes of Indians,
have hereunto set their hands and affixed their seals.
Done at Greenville, in the territory of the United States northwest
of the river Ohio, on the third day of August, one thousand seven
hundred and ninety five.
WYANDOTS. Tarhe, or Crane, his x mark L.S. J. Williams, jun. his
x mark, L.S. Teyyaghtaw, his x mark, L.S. Haroenyou, or half king's
son, his x mark, L.S. Tehaawtorens, his x mark, L.S. Awmeyeeray,
his x mark, L.S. Stayetah, his x mark L.S. Shateyyaronyah, or
Leather Lips, his x mark, L.S. Daughshuttayah, his x mark L.S.
Shaawrunthe, his x mark L.S.
DELAWARES. Tetabokshke, or Grand Glaize King, his x mark, L.S.
Lemantanquis, or Black King, his x mark, L.S. Wabatthoe, his x
mark, L.S. Maghpiway, or Red Feather, his x mark, L.S. Kikthawenund,
or Anderson, his x mark, L.S. Bukongehelas, his x mark, L.S. Peekeelund,
his x mark, L.S. Wellebawkeelund, his x mark, L.S. Peekeetelemund,
or Thomas Adams, his x mark, L.S. Kishkopekund, or Captain Buffalo,
his x mark, L.S. Amenahehan, or Captain Crow, his x mark, L.S.
Queshawksey, or George Washington, his x mark, L.S. Weywinquis,
or Billy Siscomb, his x mark, L.S. Moses, his x mark, L.S.
SHAWANEES. Misquacoonacaw, or Red Pole, his x mark, L.S. Cutthewekasaw,
or Black Hoof, his x mark, L.S. Kaysewaesekah, his x mark, L.S.
Weythapamattha, his x mark, L.S. Nianysmeka, his x mark, L.S.
Waytheah, or Long Shanks, his x mark, L.S. Weyapiersenwaw, or
Blue Jacket, his x mark, L.S. Nequetaughaw, his x mark, L.S. Hahgoosekaw,
or Captain Reed, his x mark, L.S.
OTTAWAS. Augooshaway, his x mark, L.S. Keenoshameek, his x mark,
L.S. La Malice, his x mark, L.S. Machiwetah, his x mark, L.S.
Thowonawa, his x mark, L.S. Secaw, his x mark, L.S.
CHIPPEWAS. Mashipinashiwish, or Bad Bird, his x mark, L.S. Nahshogashe,
(from Lake Superior), his x mark, L.S. Kathawasung, his x mark,
L.S. Masass, his x mark, L.S. Nemekass, or Little Thunder, his
x mark, L.S. Peshawkay, or Young Ox, his x mark, L.S. Nanguey,
his x mark, L.S. Meenedohgeesogh, his x mark, L.S. Peewanshemenogh,
his x mark, L.S. Weymegwas, his x mark, L.S. Gobmaatick, his x
OTTAWA. Chegonickska, an Ottawa from Sandusky, his x mark, L.S.
PATTAWATIMAS OF THE RIVER ST. JOSEPH. Thupenebu, his x mark, L.S.
Nawac, for himself and brother Etsimethe, his x mark, L.S. Nenanseka,
his x mark, L.S. Keesass, or Run, his x mark, L.S. Kabamasaw,
for himself and brother Chisaugan, his x mark, L.S. Sugganunk,
his x mark, L.S. Wapmeme, or White Pigeon, his x mark, L.S. Wacheness,
for himself and brother Pedagoshok, his x mark, L.S. Wabshicawnaw,
his x mark, L.S. La Chasse, his x mark, L.S. Meshegethenogh, for
himself and brother, Wawasek, his x mark, L.S. Hingoswash, his
x mark, L.S. Anewasaw, his x mark, L.S. Nawbudgh, his x mark,
L.S. Missenogomaw, his x mark, L.S. Waweegshe, his x mark, L.S.
Thawme, or Le Blanc, his x mark, L.S. Geeque, for himself and
brother Shewinse, his x mark, L.S.
PATTAWATIMAS OF HURON. Okia, his x mark, L.S. Chamung, his x mark,
L.S. Segagewan, his x mark, L.S. Nanawme, for himself and brother
A. Gin, his x mark, L.S. Marchand, his x mark, L.S. Wenameac,
his x mark, L.S. MIAMIS. Nagohquangogh, or Le Gris, his x mark,
L.S. Meshekunnoghquoh, or Little Turtle, his x mark, L.S.
MIAMIS AND EEL RIVERS. Peejeewa, or Richard Ville, his x mark,
L.S. Cochkepoghtogh, his x mark, L.S.
EEL RIVER TRIBE. Shamekunnesa, or Soldier, his x mark, L.S. MIAMIS.
Wapamangwa, or the White Loon, his x mark, L.S.
WEAS, FOR THEMSELVES AND THE PIANKESHAWS. Amacunsa, or Little
Beaver, his x mark, L.S. Acoolatha, or Little Fox, his x mark,
L.S. Francis, his x mark, L.S. KICKAPOOS AND KASKASKIAS. Keeawhah,
his x mark, L.S. Nemighka, or Josey Renard, his x mark, L.S. Paikeekanogh,
his x mark, L.S.
DELAWARES OF SANDUSKY. Hawkinpumiska, his x mark, L.S. Peyamawksey,
his x mark, L.S. Reyntueco, (of the Six Nations, living at Sandusky),
his x mark, L.S.
H. De Butts, first A.D.C. and Sec'ry to Major Gen. Wayne, Wm.
H. Harrison, Aid de Camp to Major Gen. Wayne, T. Lewis, Aid de
Camp to Major Gen. Wayne, James O'Hara, Quartermaster Gen'l. John
Mills, Major of Infantry, and Adj. Gen'l. Caleb Swan, P.M.T.U.S.
Gen. Demter, Lieut. Artillery, Vigo, P. Frs. La Fontaine, Ast.
Lasselle, Sworn interpreters. H. Lasselle, Wm. Wells, Js. Beau
Bien, Jacques Lasselle, David Jones, Chaplain U.S.S. M. Morins,
Lewis Beaufait, Bt. Sans Crainte, R. Lachambre, Christopher Miller,
Jas. Pepen, Robert Wilson, Baties Coutien, Abraham Williams,
is x mark P. Navarre. Isaac Zane, his x mark
Prepared by Nancy Troutman (The Cleveland Free-Net - aa345), NPTN.
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(c)Paul Halsall Aug 1997