Modern History Sourcebook:
Sir Henry McMahon:
Letter to Ali ibn Husain, 1915
McMahon was British High Commissioner in Egypt and Ali Ibn Husain was the Sherif of
Mecca during the First World War. In a series of ten letters from 1915 to 1916 McMahon
tried to attract Arab support against the Ottoman Empire. The following excerpt is from a
letter from October 24, 1915. The implied promise is of British support of an independent
Arab state.As for those regions lying within those frontiers wherein Great Britain is free to
act without detriment to the interests of her ally, France, I am empowered in the name of
the Government of Great Britain to give the following assurances and make the following
reply to your letter:(1) Subject to the above modifications, Great Britain is prepared to recognise and
support the independence of the Arabs in all the regions within the limits demanded by the
Sherif of Mecca.(2) Great Britain will guarantee the Holy Places against all external aggression and
will recognise their inviolability.(3) When the situation admits, Great Britain will give to the Arabs her advice and will
assist them to establish what may appear to be the most suitable forms of government in
those various territories.(4) On the other hand, it is understood that the Arabs have decided to seek the advice
and guidance of Great Britain only, and that such European advisers and officials as may
be required for the formation of a sound form of administration will be British.(5) With regard to the vilayets of Bagdad and Basra, the Arabs will recognise that the
established position and interests of Great Britain necessitate special administrative
arrangements in order to secure these territories from foreign aggression, to promote the
welfare of the local populations and to safeguard our mutual economic interests.I am convinced that this declaration will assure you beyond all possible doubt of the
sympathy of Great Britain towards the aspirations of her friends the Arabs and will result
in a firm and lasting alliance, the immediate results of which will be the expulsion of
the Turks from the Arab countries and the freeing of the Arab peoples from the Turkish
yoke, which for so many years has pressed heavily upon them.
From Great Britain. Parliamentary Papers, 1939, Misc. No. 3, Cmd. 5957.
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© Paul Halsall, July 1998