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Fordham University Pathways to Health Study Racial Bias Scale

Fordham University Pathways to Health Study

Study PIs 
Celia B. Fisher (
Tiffany Yip (

Contact Information
Lori Merone (

The Pathways to Health Study was conducted in April 2020 to understand the biosocial, psychological, and social impact of the Coronavirus pandemic on young adults (age 18 – 25; N = 600) from diverse racial/ethnic groups, socioeconomic and employment status and geographic regions of the U.S. The anonymous survey conducted through Qualtrics examined participants’ self-reported sleep patterns, somatic symptoms, feelings of anxiety and depression, substance use, social isolation, racial/ethnic discrimination, Coronavirus stigmatization and Coronavirus racial bias. The study was conducted by Celia B. Fisher and Tiffany Yip and funded by the Fordham University Center for Ethics Education, Director, Celia B. Fisher.

The Coronavirus Racial Bias Scale (CRBS)

Fordham University

Date Published

Online Survey Link

Annotation (Basic Information)
The Coronavirus Racial Bias Scale (CRBS) is a brief self-report questionnaire developed by Fordham University’s Center for Ethics Education and Applied Developmental Psychology Program as part of the Pathways to Health Study. The CRBS assesses beliefs about how the Coronavirus has negatively affected people of their race/ethnicity. Questions include beliefs regarding Coronavirus-related increase in negative racial/ethnic public attitudes, racial/ethnic biases resulting in loss of employment and access to health services and increases in racially charged social media and cyberbullying.

Psychometric Properties
Each item on the CRBS is rated on a 4-point scale, from 1 (strongly disagree) to 4 (strongly agree). The CRBS was developed on a large sample of young adults (n = 581; 18 – 25 year) living in the United States. Primary self-reported racial identity included AIAN (N =98), East and Southeast Asian (N = 100); Black, African American, Caribbean (N = 143); Hispanic (N = 99) and White (N = 141). The CRBS has high inter-item reliability across race/ethnicity (overall alpha = .89; range .86 -.93) and construct validity: (1) AIAN, Asian, Black and Hispanic score significantly higher on the CRBS than White young adults); and (2) CRBS scores are significantly correlated with racial vigilance, racial discrimination, anxiety, and depression).

Scoring and interpretation
Each item on the CRBS is rated on a 4-point scale, from 1 (strongly disagree) to 4 (strongly agree). Each item begins with the stem “Please answer the following questions on your beliefs about how the Coronavirus is affecting people of your race/ethnicity.”

9 questions

Time to Complete


Special Considerations

Guideline/Assessment Tool