Byzantine Studies On The Internet
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Byzantium is the name given to both
the state and the culture of the Eastern Roman Empire in the middle ages. Both the state
and the inhabitants always called themselves Roman, as did most of their neighbors.
Western Europeans, who had their own Roman Empire called them Orientals or Greeks,
and later following the example of the great French scholar DuCange, Byzantines after the former name of the Empire's capital city, Constantinople.
These names give witness to the composite nature of Byzantium.
It was, without any doubt, the continuation of the Roman state, and until the seventh
century, preserved the basic structures of Late Roman Mediterranean civic culture: - a
large multi-ethnic Christian state, based on a network of urban centers, and defended by a
mobile specialized army. After the Arab/Muslim conquest of Egypt and Syria, the nature of
the state and culture was transformed. Byzantium became much more a Greek state [perhaps
best seen in the emperor Heraklios' adoption of the Greek title Basileus],
all the cities except Constantinople faded away to small fortified centers, and the
military organization of the empire came to be based on a series of local armies. There is
then a persistent ambiguity about the beginning of Byzantine history - between the
building of Constantinople by Constantine I and the mid-7th century collapse of late
antique urban culture.
The seventh to ninth centuries are generally accounted a low
point of Byzantine history. Little literature - even saints' lives - survives, and even
less art. The period is studied above all for the history of the struggle over icons. This Iconoclastic Controversy bears witness to a continued intellectual vitality,
and the emergence of one of history's most sophisticated analyses of the nature and
function of art. Under the Macedonian Dynasty [867-1056], Byzantium's political
power reached its apogee as former territories were incorporated in the Empire, and an
element of multi-ethnicity was restored. This period is also significant as the time in
which Byzantine culture was spread among the Slavs and other Balkan peoples. Following
massive Turkish attacks in the late eleventh century, the Empire was able to maintain a
lesser but still significant political and military power under the Komnenian Dynasty:
the cost was a social transformation which exalted a powerful military aristocracy, and
gradually enserfed the previously free peasantry. In 1204, internal Byzantine politics and
the resurgent West, effectively ended the imperial pretensions of the Byzantine state. The
Fourth Crusade  succeeded in conquering Constantinople and making it a Latin
principality for half a century. The Greek political leadership, under the Palaiologan
Dynasty regained Constantinople in 1261, but the "empire" was just one state
among many in the area for the final 200 years of its existence. Strangely, this period
was among the most culturally productive, in art, in theology, and in literature.
It would be wrong then to present the later history of
Byzantium as a "thousand year history of decline", leading inevitably to its
conquest by the Ottoman Turks on Tuesday 29th May 1453. This perception, promoted
disastrously by the English historian Edward Gibbon, reflects the origins in the classical
studies of Byzantine studies. The classic periods of ancient cultures [the fifth and
fourth centuries BCE in Greece and the late republican/early imperial period in Rome] have
long appealed to modern Western sensibilities because - as times of rapid change and
innovation in art and literature - echoes and origins of the present have been seen there.
In comparison, Byzantine political culture changed slowly, and continuity was valued over
change. Furthermore, classical secularism, so attractive to Renaissance and Enlightenment
scholars, had no place in Byzantine thought worlds. As a result Byzantine culture was
subjected to centuries of abuse as a time of barbarism and superstition.
The counterpart to the dismissal of Byzantine culture was its
exaltation by 19th-century Romanticism, and by a substrate of Christian, especially
Anglican, intellectuals. [Even now Anglican seminaries are good places to locate books on
Byzantine studies.] Byzantium was also "claimed" by some Orthodox Christian
intellectuals. The result was that, after having been demeaned by the Enlightenment,
Byzantium acquired defenders, but defenders who concentrated equally on the culture's
religious aspects. Far from calm scholarship, Byzantine studies has ever been a locus of
contestation, of defamers and champions.
A third important strand of Byzantine studies has been the
Marxist contribution. Marxist historians are often derided, especially in the United
States, for fitting facts to theory [as if they alone were guilty of this!] In Byzantium,
especially in the agricultural laws of the tenth century, which were presented at the time
as addressing a struggle of the "poor" and the "powerful". Marxists
saw a prime example of the beginning of "feudalism". While perhaps pushing some
interpretations too hard, the Marxist tradition remains valuable in affirming a secular
aspect of Byzantine culture.
Currently, Byzantine studies, reflecting its classical
heritage, is still much more dominated by philological and art historical concerns than
Western medieval history. Still, there are interesting transformations evident. The French Annales School, represented by such scholars as Helene Ahrweiler and Evelyne
Patlagean has applied the specific social, cliometric and "long duree"
methodologies to Byzantine studies with some gusto. Purely social history, without a
Marxist slant, is now well established, with Angeliki Laiou among the most productive
writers. The Russian Byzantinist Alexander Kazhdan was responsible for a whole variety of
initiatives, including a willingness to study religious phenomena in secular perspective.
Finally, and much later than in other areas of historical study, the history of women is
now coming to the fore.
Byzantine civilization constitutes a major world culture.
Because of its unique position as the medieval continuation of the Roman State, it has
tended to be dismissed by classicists and ignored by Western medievalists. Its internal
elite culture was archaicizing and perhaps pessimistic. But we should not be deceived. As
the centrally located culture, and by far the most stable state, of the Medieval period,
Byzantium is of major interest both in itself, and because the development and late
history of Western European, Slavic and Islamic cultures are not comprehensible without
taking it into consideration. While few would claim elevated status for much Byzantine
literature [although its historiographical
tradition is matched only by China's], in its art and architecture, Byzantine culture
was genuinely, and despite itself, innovative and capable of producing works of great
beauty. As an area of study, as I have tried to indicate here, Byzantine studies is
complex, full of conflict, and still open to new questions and methods.
This website has been prepared as a WWW gathering point for
Byzantine studies. It has now moved to an academic web-server at Fordham
University (where much more space for images will be available), but until September 1999 the http://www.bway.net/~halsall/byzantium.html location will continue to function.
The basic structure of the site is now in place. But it will
continue to grow as more Byzantine related material becomes available on the net. Make sure to check out Links
to Other Sites: there is already a fair amount of Byzantine material on the net. This
is possibly the most useful aspect of this site.
Visiting Constantinople/Istanbul [page to be developed]
One of the most common ways people encounter Byzantine
civilization is when they visit cities such as Venice, Ravenna, Rome, Thessalonica,
Mistra, and, above all, Constantinople. I intend to add a page of hints and
pointers to making such a visit. In the meantime, here are three sites that
should help any intended visitors.
Istanbul City Guide: http://www.istanbulcityguide.com/
And (in response to many requests), for hotels, I
recommend avoiding the high end luxury hotels (unless you can afford the
converted Ottoman Ciragan Palace ).
Those seeking a taste of early 20th Century
Constantinople (and Agatha Christie fans) should think about the Pera
Palas (which was built to house those who arrived by the Orient
For myself and my students I always heartily
recommend a small hotel in an Ottoman house right on the Hippodrome - the Hotel
Spectra. Its owner and staff have always been wonderful, and the
view from its breakfast room is unbeatable.
SELECT THE LINKS BELOW
TO GO TO THE DOCUMENTS OR PAGES INDICATED
Full Program available soon [Link is to BSC homepage] Older conference notices which appeared here are still accessible at
Byzantine Studies Page
Dumbarton Oaks is the main center in America for Byzantine studies.
Orthodox Archdiocese: Byzantine Music Site
Primarily a religious site, but the Music page contains more online
Byzantine music (and liturgy) than anywhere else.
Guide To This Site
Calls for Papers
Calls for papers in Byzantine, Late Antique and Medieval Studies
ACADEMIC AND TEACHING RESOURCES
TEXTS, IMAGES and SOUNDS
Byzantine Studies Syllabi
Still fairly sparse. If you have a syllabus for a Byzantine related
history or art course, please consider letting it be made widely available here.
Byzantine Studies Course Outlines
A page for more extended class by class descriptions of Byzantine
studies courses. To see what can be done look at a sample course called Introduction to Medieval Studies.
Basic Reference Documents on
Includes date lists for Byzantine emperors, patriarchs of all five
great sees and a guide to the Byzantine historiographical tradition. Now contains Byzantine Sources in
Translation - Preliminary Version - a listing of Byzantine sources translated into
Western European languages.
Shareware Available at this Site
Bibliographic Guides in Byzantine
Extensive bibliographies already available include: Byzantine
Sources, the Paleologan Period, Saints Lives in Translation, Byzantium in Modern Fiction,
and more. See also the Reference Documents page.
Medieval Sourcebook [with Byzantine Sources Page ]
This a huge collection of full and excerpted texts in translation
for Byzantine and Medieval studies. If you have any translations, or non-copyrighted etext
versions, of Byzantine sources, please consider letting them be placed here.
Medieval Sourcebook: Saints Lives
A Specialized text collection of Byzantine and Western saints'
Lives, along with other hagiographical resources.
A guide to Byzantine manuscript sources, with examples, images,
letter form tables, abbreviation tables, scholarly aides, annotated bibliographies, and
links to other paleography sites.
Byzantine Studies Articles
Links to secondary articles in Byzantine studies.
Reviews of Byzantine Books
Reviews and blurbs of Byzantine related books available on the
Internet. If you have any to contribute, please consider placing them here.
Internet Discussions of Byzantine
Includes a guide to Byzantine related mail lists.
Gallery: Images Available at this and
Other Sites UPDATED
Gallery contains links to an array of Byzantine art,
religious and historical images available on the net. The version with inline thumbnail
images, which never worked, has been removed.
This page contains links to information about Byzantine music, as
well as links to a variety of sound files.
Links to Other Sites
This is a useful link for you to follow. It contains direct links to
documents, pictures, and other Internet sites to do with Byzantine culture, and links to
Internet sites useful for Ancient, Late Antique, Western Medieval, and Middle Eastern
history and culture.
Statement on Copyright and Fair Use
The image of Christ Pantokrator at the top of this page is a
13th century icon from the Treasury of Chilander monastery on Mt. Athos.
The background of this page is from an 11th century mosaic in Hagia Sophia
depicting Christ with the Empress Zoe and Emperor Constantine IX Monomachus.
The author and maintainer of this site is Paul Halsall [a picture!]. He can be contacted by email at firstname.lastname@example.org
Please do not hesitate to mail comments or suggestions.