Class 16: The Church and the Empire
I. Introduction A. Modern idea of a state is a Nation State [Q&A] One people - One area/usually contiguous One language - Sovereignty - Democracy? Dominance of this idea world wide. B. Nation states do not just appear. Are really a development in full sense of the early modern and modern period. The French Revolution was very important in spreading the idea. Until 1918 most of Europe was under multinational empires - Austria, Russia. But part of the reason the French Revolution was able to spread the idea was that France was already a nation-state under its kings. So also were Great Britain, the Netherlands, Spain, and Denmark (w/o Norway.. All these countries are melded into states, which later take on national characteristics in the high middle ages. And this was done under a series of kings, who used and built on, in France and England at least, the institutions of feudalism. C. Although the ideal of the Nation state did not triumph until this century, what we are doing today is looking at the early origins. D. Note -idea of strong nations is inimical to the idea of universal empire. -Do not think history has come to an end re. these states Europe show signs of another universal idea -i.e. the EEC. II. The Holy Roman Empire: Failure A. Established by Ottonians 962 First strong state of Middle Ages. Survives until Napoleon But not as a strong state, more as a title, B. Struggle with Papacy 1. Relation with Popes - Popes gave the crown. Massive intellectual dominance of Roman Ideology, 2. At first Emperors dominated - e.g. Henry III 1039-56 and Council of Sutri 3. Investiture Controversy 1076 -1122 (Con. of Worms. Had seen Henry IV 1056-1106 grovel at Canossa Weakness of Emperors - title could be revoked. + they faced very strong Lords/bishops in Germany 4. Papal-Imperial Struggle continues 5. Frederick Barbarossa 1152-1190 - Empire powerful 6. Frederick II 1211-1250 Concentrated on Italy - powerful interests in Germany grow stronger 7. Elective nature of German aspect of Empire. -Weakens the Emperors -Never able to satisfactorily establish hereditary rights. -Gives electors chance to demand power -Germany divides feudally after 1260s (circa. -Interregnum 1254-1273 -Rudolph Hapsburg 1273-1291 -Hapsburgs gain and keep title - but power is based on own collection of lands - eventually leading to another empire - Austria. 8. By late middle ages Germany is a collection of 300+ small and large states. -The HRE can be used by some powerful kings 9. Popes support other kings - for support vs. Empires
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© Paul Halsall, 1996.
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