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About IHSPIJSP Credits

People with a History: An Online Guide to Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Trans* History

Site Maintainer: Paul Halsall
©1997


Contents:

Section I: The Ancient Mediterranean

Go to the following pages for other parts of People with a History


Chapter 2: The Ancient Near East and Egypt

The oldest human cultures complex enough to be called "civilizations" seem to have emerged in Ancient Iraq and Turkey, and in Egypt. The basic historical distinction between the two areas is that Egypt had a more or less continuous "national" history from the earliest Pharoahs until the rise of Islam, while Iraq, Syria and Anatolia, being much more geographically exposed, were homes to succeeding and not entirely continuous cultures - Sumeria, Akkad, Babylon, Assyria, Persia, Seleucia, to name only a few.

Despite the immense time covered, research into homosexuality seems to have only just begun for these areas, and this is a section of this page that will be developed as more information becomes available. So far much of the discussion is based on Biblical texts, and on the assumption that the hostility of the Hebrew Bible to homosexual practice reflects homosexual activities associated with the surrounding religions.

An area which need more research is evidence of "homoaffectionalism" in these ancient societies: that is relationships based on desire but not necessarily sexual. The epic story of Gilgamesh contains one very important story in this regard.

Discussions:

  • None as yet

Texts:

  • The Book of Ani, or the Egyptian Book of the Dead [At Upenn]
    The is the full text in E. Wallis Budge's translation. Homosexual activity is addressed in the "Negative Confession". Search for "lain with men".
  • Contendings of Horus and Seth [trans Edward F. Wente, in The Literature of Ancient Egypt, ed. William Kelly Simpson, (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1972), 108-26
    The struggled between these two gods (Seth was brother and murderer of Horus's father Osiris) in this New Kingdom literary text, has distinct homosexual overtones - based on who was dominating whom.
  • Mesopotamian Law and Homosexuality
  • Epic of Gilgamesh [extended summary] [At Cambridge]
    Note that in Tablet I: Cols. 5-6, Gilgamesh relationship with Enkudu is explicitly said to be like that "with a wife". Some versions, especially summaries, elide the homoeroticism of the text..
  • The Promise of Inanna to Gender Variants, [At Aztriad]
  • Myth of Cybele and Attis, [At Aztriad]
  • Avesta Vendidad: Fargard 8 - Zoroastrian Law Book on Homosexuality [At Avesta Homepage, with links to text in original language]
    There is some difficulty in dating Zoroastrian scriptures. The Gathas, the presumed writings of Zoroaster, are silent on the subject. The legal texts here were collected in the Vendidad, circa 250-650 CE, and are overtly hostile to male homosexual activity. It has been suggested that they are the root of the Hebrew Scripture's condemnation - they contain the phrase "Lies with mankind as womankind" for instance. This depends on the assumption that Vendidad is a collection is of much earlier texts. But given the dates the influence may have been from the Hebrew texts. There is a general discussion of Zoroastrianism and Homosexuality on the net.
  • Coptic Spell: For a Man to Obtain a Male Lover, Egypt, [poss. 6th C. CE]

Web sites:

Back to Contents


Chapter 3: Ancient Greece

For modern western gays and lesbians, Ancient Greece has long functioned as sort of homosexual Arcadia. Greek culture was, and is, highly privileged as one of the foundations of Western culture and the culture of sexuality apparent in its literature was quite different from the "repression" experienced by moderns. The sense of possibility the Greek experienced opened up can be seen in a scene in E.M. Forster's Maurice where the hero is seen reading Plato's Symposium at Cambridge.

It would be too simple, however, to see Greek homosexuality as just a more idyllic form than modern versions. As scholars have gone to work on the -- plentiful -- material several tropes have become common. One set of scholars (slightly old-fashioned now) looks for the "origin" of Greek homosexuality, as if it were a new type of game, and argues that, since the literature depicts homosexual eros among the fifth-century aristocracy, it functioned as sort of fashion among that group. This is rather like arguing that because nineteenth-century English novels depict romance as an activity of the gentry and aristocracy, other classes did not have romantic relationships. Another, now more prevalent, group of scholars argue that term "homosexual", referring they say to sexual orientation, is inappropriate to discussions of Greek sexual worlds. Rather they stress the age dissonance in literary homoerotic ideals, and the importance of "active" and "passive" roles. Some stress these themes so intently that it comes as a surprise to discover that we now the names of quite number of long-term Greek homosexual couples.

As a result of such scholarly discussions, it is no longer possible to portray Greece as a homosexual paradise. It remains the case that the Greek experience of eros was quite different from experiences in the modern world, and yet continues, because of Greece's persistent influence on modern norms to be of special interest.

Discussions:

Reviews:

  • Jennifer Neils: Robertson, Martin: The art of vase-painting in classical Athens. [Review at Bryn Mawr Classical Review] Robertson, Martin, The art of vase-painting in classical Athens. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992.
  • Earl Jackson Jr : Amy Richlin, ed.: Pornography and Representation in Greece [Review at Bryn Mawr Classical Review] Amy Richlin, ed. Pornography and Representation in Greece and Rome. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1991.
  • Thomas M. Falkner: Strauss: Fathers and Sons [Review at Bryn Mawr Classical Review] Barry S. Strauss, Fathers and Sons in Athens. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993.
  • Michael W. Haslam: M.L. West, ed.: Iambi et Elegi Graeci ante Alexandrum cantati vol. [Review at Bryn Mawr Classical Review] M L. West, ed., Iambi et Elegi Graeci ante Alexandrum cantati vol. II, editio altera. Oxford University Press, 1992.
  • Ellen Greene: Williamson: Sappho's Immortal Daughters [Review at Bryn Mawr Classical Review] Margaret Williamson, Sappho's Immortal Daughters. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1995.
  • Brad Inwood & Mark Timmins: Dean-Jones: Women's Bodies [Review at Bryn Mawr Classical Review] Lesley Ann Dean-Jones, Women's Bodies in Classical Greek Science. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1994.
  • Froma I. Zeitlin: Rabinowitz: Anxiety Veiled (II) [Review at Bryn Mawr Classical Review] Nancy Sorkin Rabinowitz, Anxiety Veiled: Euripides and the Traffic in Women. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1993.
  • Gunhild Viden: Berggren/Marinatos, edd.: Greece and Gender [Review at Bryn Mawr Classical Review] Berggren, Brit & Marinatos, Nanno (edd.), Greece and Gender. Bergen: Papers from the Norwegian Institute at Athens 2, 1995.
  • Keith DeVries: Kilmer, Greek Erotica [Review at Bryn Mawr Classical Review] Martin F. Kilmer, Greek Erotica. London: Duckworth, 1993. 286; figs.
  • David M. Schaps: Loraux: Experiences of Tiresias [Review at Bryn Mawr Classical Review] Loraux, Nicole, The Experiences of Tiresias: The Feminine and the Greek Man. Translated by Paula Wissing. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1995.
  • Richard Hamilton: Garland, R.: The Greek Way of Life: (Richard Hamilton) [Review at Bryn Mawr Classical Review] Robert Garland. The Greek Way of Life: From Conception to Old Age. London: Duckworth 1990.
  • Richard Hamilton: Review of O. Murray ed. Sympotica: A Symposium on the Symposion. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1990. [Review at Bryn Mawr Classical Review]
    Long summary review on the nature of a symposium.
  • Anton Bierl: Craik, E.M. (ed.): Owls to Athens: (Anton Bierl) [Review at Bryn Mawr Classical Review] Owls to Athens: Essays on Classical Subjects Presented to Sir Kenneth Dover, edited by E. M. Craik. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1990.
  • M.L. Lang: Cohen, David, Law, Sexuality and Society: The Enforcement of Morals in Classical Athens (M.L. Lang) [Review at Bryn Mawr Classical Review] David Cohen. Law, Sexuality and Society: The Enforcement of Morals in Classical Athens. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991.
  • Pamela Gordon: Swain, Hellenism and Empire [Review at Bryn Mawr Classical Review] Swain, Simon, Hellenism and Empire: Language, Classicism, and Power in the Greek World AD 50-250. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1996.
  • Ralph Hexter: Wilhelm, ed.: Gay and Lesbian Poetry [Review at Bryn Mawr Classical Review] James J. Wilhelm, ed., Gay and Lesbian Poetry: An Anthology from Sappho to Michaelangelo. Garland Reference Library of the Humanities, vol. 1874. New York and London: Garland Publishing, 1995.
  • James J. Claus: Bing, P. and Cohen, R. trans.,: Games of Venus [Review at Bryn Mawr Classical Review] Games of Venus. An Anthology of Greek and Roman Erotic Verse from Sappho to Ovid, Introduced, Translated, and Annotated by Peter Bing and Rip Cohen, Routledge: New York and London, 1991
  • Donald Lateiner: Versnel: Transition and Reversal in Myth and Ritual [Review at Bryn Mawr Classical Review] H.S. Versnel. Transition and Reversal in Myth and Ritual. Inconsistencies in Greek and Roman Religion II. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1993.
  • Texts:

    For Greek texts, in addition to complete English texts (when available), there are also links, where possible, to PERSEUS, an Internet resources which gives access to texts in both English and hyper-linked Greek.

    Philosophical Views of Eros

    • Plato (427-347 BCE): The Symposium (complete in one file, English)
      The classic discussion of the nature of "eros". This text provided a cultural basis for many educated homosexuals in later eras.
    • Plato (427-347 BCE): The Symposium,[At Perseus, in English, with Greek text accessible]
    • Plato (427-347 BCE): Phaedrus, (complete in one file, English), [At UPenn]
      Plato's use of homosexual eros, and the figure of the Charioteer of the soul, has been of lasting importance in positive conceptions of homosexual love.
    • Plato (427-347 BCE): Phaedrus,[At Perseus, in English, with Greek text accessible]
    • Plato (427-347 BCE): The Laws (excerpts)
      Plato, although seeing eros as fundamentally homosexual in the Symposium, adopted a more negative view here. He describes homosexual sex as "unnatural".
    • Plato (427-347 BCE): The Laws, 636bff [At Perseus, in English, with Greek text accessible]
    • Aristotle (384-322 BCE): Homosexuality in The Politics (excerpts). The Full text of The Politics is available [At MIT]
    • Aristotle (384-322 BCE): Homosexuality in The Nichomachean Ethics [Bk. VII, C. 5]
    • Aristotle (384-322 BCE): "Friendship" in The Nichomachean Ethics [Bk VIII]
      The Full text of The Nichomachean Ethics is available [At MIT]
    • Demosthenes (384-322 BCE): Erotic Essay, [At Perseus, in English, with Greek text accessible]
    • Demosthenes (384-322 BCE): Against Androtion 58 [At Perseus, in English, with Greek text accessible]
    • Sextus Empiricus (c. 200 CE): Outline of Pyrrhonism, 1:152, 3:199

    Homosexuality in Literature

    • Homer (c.850 BCE), Achilles Meets the Ghost of Patroclus, Illiad 23, [At Perseus, in English, with Greek text accessible]
      Although Homer does not present Achilles and Patroclus as homosexually active, later Greeks assumed that they were.
    • Sappho (late 7th C. BCE): Poems, [At Sappho.com]
      The first poet to call the moon "silvery", very few of Sappho's poems survive (only one in its entirety). But her poems are among the best evidence we have of Lesbian love in antiquity.
    • Sappho (late 7th C. BCE): Poems [At Sacred Texts]
    • Sappho (late 7th C. BCE): Poems [At Temple]
    • Theognis (first half 6th C. BCE): "To Kurnos"
    • Solon (c.638-558 BCE): "Boys and Sport"
    • Pindar (518- after 446 BCE): Ode on Theoxenos
    • Aristophanes (c.445-c.385 BCE): The Clouds (complete in one file, English), [At MIT]
    • Aristophanes (c.445-c.385 BCE): The Clouds, [At Perseus, in English, with Greek text accessible]
      Although overtly "homophobic" at times, Aristophanes assumes homosexuality is both common and a normal aspect of human sexuality.
    • Aristophanes (c.445-c.385 BCE): The Knights (complete in one file, English), [At MIT]
    • Aristophanes (c.445-c.385 BCE): The Knights, [At Perseus, in English, with Greek text accessible]
    • Aristophanes (c.445-c.385 BCE): The Thesmophoriazusae (complete in one file, English), [At MIT]
    • Aristophanes (c.445-c.385 BCE): The Thesmophoriazusae, [At Perseus, in English, with Greek text accessible]
    • Theocritus (c.320-c.260 BCE): Idylls 12 and 29 (trans. Edward Carpenter)
      Idylls 5, 12, 26, 30 are all autobiographical. See also 13, and 23. The originator of pastoral or bucolic poetry. Idyll 12:30 describes a homosexual kissing contest at the Diocleia festival at Megara.
    • Achilles Tatius (2nd C. CE): Women unfavourably compared with boy lovers. Egypt, 2nd cent. CE, from Leucippe and Clitophon 2.37.5-9, 38.1-3. G [At STOA]
      From a debate between defenders of heterosexual and homosexual intercourse in one of the most popular ancient Greek novels.

    Homosexuality in Historiography

    • Herodotus (c.490-c.425 BCE): Histories 1.135 Go here for beginning of text. [At Perseus, in English, with Greek text accessible]
      On Persian pederasty as borrowed from the Greeks.
    • Thucydides (c.460/455-c.399 BCE): on Aristogeiton and Harmodius, from The Peloponnesian War. Full Text available at MIT.
    • Xenophon (c.428-c.354 BCE): Anabasis 7.4.7, Go here for beginning of text. [At Perseus, in English, with Greek text accessible]
      On Episthenes and a boy.
    • Xenophon (c.428-c.354 BCE): Cyropeadia 7.1.30, Go here for beginning of text. [At Perseus, in English, with Greek text accessible]
      On the value of comrades and lovers in battle. See also Anabasis 1.8.25, Anabasis 1.9.31 for accounts of Cyrus' friends dying with him.
    • Xenophon (c.428-c.354 BCE): Memorabilia 2.6.28 Go here for beginning of text. [At Perseus, in English, with Greek text accessible]
      Socrates' description of himself as "experienced in the pursuit of men". In 1.3.12 he describes the effect of love on him.
    • Xenophon (c.428-c.354 BCE): Symposium 8, Go here for beginning of text. [At Perseus, in English, with Greek text accessible]
      Section 8 begins an extended discussion of love, primarily homosexual.
    • Xenophon (c.428-c.354 BCE): Constitution of Sparta, 2:13. Go here for beginning of text. [At Perseus, in English, with Greek text accessible]
      On Spartan homosexuality. The whole of Const.Sparta 2 is about the education of Spartan youths is of interest.
    • Aeschines (c.390-c.322 BCE): Against Timarchus (complete in one file, English)
      A legal brief delivered by Aeschines against a political opponent. It is among the most revealing of all texts on Greek attitudes to homosexuality.
    • Aeschines (c.390-c.322 BCE): Against Timarchus, [At Perseus, in English, with Greek text accessible]
    • Timaeus of Tauromenium (c.356-260 BCE): History of Sicily
      Discusses pederasty among the "Tyrrhenians". He specifically states that neither "active" nor "passive" sex was considered objectionable.
    • Strabo (64 BCE-after 24CE): Geography 10.4.20-21 - Go here for beginning of text. [At Perseus, in English, with Greek text accessible]
      Quoting Ephoros on Cretan homosexuality and rituals.
    • Plutarch (46-120 CE): On The Sacred Band of Thebes, from Life of Pelopidas
    • Plutarch (46-120 CE): Life of Pelopidas, (complete) [At MIT]
    • Plutarch (46-120 CE): Life of Solon, [At Perseus, in English, with Greek text accessible]
      [1.3] explains how Solon forbade pederasty to slaves. [1.4] discusses Peistratus' lover Charmus.
    • Plutarch (46-120 CE): Life of Lycurgus (complete) [At MIT]
      An important text for Spartan pederasty and sexual life in general.
    • Plutarch (46-120 CE): Life of Alexander, (complete) [At MIT]
      An account of Alexander's life which makes clear his intimacy with Hephasteion. Alexander's favourite Bagoas is also describes, including a famous scene in which Alexander was called on by a crowd to kiss Bagoas in public. He did.
    • Plutarch (46-120 CE): Parallel Lives, (complete in English) [At Chicago]
    • Plutarch (46-120 CE): Erotic Essay, esp. #5
      Although Plutarch discusses without any horror homosexual lover in his Lives, here he is opposed to pederasty.
    • Pausanias (c. 160 CE): Description of Greece 1.30.1 Go here for beginning of text. [At Perseus, in English, with Greek text accessible]
      The story of Timagoras and Meles and the altar of Love built by Charmus. Refers to love between Athenian citizens and metics (resident aliens).
    • Pausanias (c. 160 CE): Description of Greece 9.23.1 [At Perseus]
      On the hero-shrine of Iolaus at Thebes. Cf. Pindar: Olympian Odes 7:84 and Scholia.
    • Pseudo-Apollodorus (2nd C. CE: Library 3.5.5. [At Perseus, in English, with Greek text accessible]
      On the Abduction of Chrysippus by King Laïus of Thebes, sometimes said to have "invented" pederesty.
    • Athenaeus (c. 200 CE): The Deipnosophists, Book 13:601-606
      The report of a Roman dinner party, in fact a weaving together of anecdotes, it includes a wealth of gossip about homosexuals in antiquity.
    • Athenaeus (c. 200 CE): The Deipnosophists Book 13 (pt 1), Book 13 (pt 2), and Book 13 (pt 3) [At heliogabby]
    • Philostratus: The Life of Apollonius of Tyana: Of Eunuchs and of Passion [At mountainman.com]
      Eunuchs were an important part of Greco-Roman gender systems. Here Appollonius discusses their sexual appetites with the king of Bablyon.

    Images of Homosexuality and Homoeroticism

    Websites:

    • Sappho Page [At Temple]
    • Amazon Page [At Internet Archive, from Speakeasy.org]
      Extensive site about the famed women warriors - with texts from Herodotus and other ancient historians.
    • Women's Life in Greece and Rome [At Diotima> Excellent collection of texts.
    • The Greek World of Mary Renault [At WWU]
      Renault was a lesbian writer who produced a series of splendid novels about ancient Greek male homosexuality. This site provides synopses, character lists [keyed to Perseus], pictures and links for each of these novels. Not exactly "history", but very useful for historians.
    • Sexuality in Ancient Art [At Aztriad]

    Back to Contents


    Chapter 4: Ancient Rome

    Discussions:

    Reviews:

    • Christina S. Kraus: Sussman: Declamations of Calpurnius Flaccus [Review at Bryn Mawr Classical Review] Lewis A. Sussman: The Declamations of Calpurnius Flaccus. Text, Translation, and Commentary. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1994
    • David Meadows: Eyben: Restless Youth [Review at Bryn Mawr Classical Review] Emiel Eyben. Restless Youth in Ancient Rome. London: Routledge, 1993.
    • Wade Richardson: Panayotakis, Theatrum Arbitri [Review at Bryn Mawr Classical Review] Costas Panayotakis, Theatrum Arbitri: Theatrical Elements in the Satyrica of Petronius. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1995.
    • Elizabeth Block: Garrison, D.H. (ed): The Student's Catullus [Review at Bryn Mawr Classical Review] The Student's Catullus. Ed. Daniel H. Garrison. University of Oklahoma Press.
    • D. Potter: Treggiari, Susan: Roman Marriage (D. Potter) [Review at Bryn Mawr Classical Review] Susan Treggiari. Roman Marriage. Iusti Coniuges from the Time of Cicero to the time of Ulpian. Oxford University Press. Oxford, 1991.
    • Jeanne Neumann O'Neill: Mulroy, Horace's Odes and Epodes [Review at Bryn Mawr Classical Review] David Mulroy, Horace's Odes and Epodes. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1994
    • T. Corey Brennan: Brooten, Bernadette: Love Between Women [Review at Bryn Mawr Classical Review] Brooten, Bernadette J., Love between Women: Early Christian Responses to Female Homoeroticism, (Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 1996)
    • David Halperin: Halperin on Brennan on Brooten, [Review of review at Bryn Mawr Classical Review]

    Texts: Literary

    • Catullus (84-54 BCE): Selected Poems, selections, trans. John Porter, [At Univ. of Saskatechewan]
    • Catullus (84-54 BCE): Carmina 63, on the Gallae, [At Aztriad]
      In English and Latin
    • Catullus (84-54 BCE): 9, 15, 16, 24, 33, 38, 47, 48, 56, 61, 80, 81, 99
    • Catullus (84-54 BCE): Complete Poems, in Latin [At obscure.org]
    • Tibullus (c.55-19 BCE): Elegies, I:4, 8, 9
    • Horace (65-8 BCE): Satires:1,2,11, 113ff
    • Horace (65-8 BCE): Epodes XI
    • Horace (65-8 BCE): Odes IV, 1 and 10
    • Ovid (43BCE-17CE): Metamorphoses 9:666-797
      The story of Iphis and Ianthe. One of the most important Roman presentations of lesbianism, but somewhat problematic in its details.
    • Ovid (43 BCE-17CE): Metamorphoses 10 (excerpts)
      Male gods who love male humans: Zeus and Ganymede, Apollo and Hyacinth.
    • Ovid (43 BCE-17CE): Metamorphoses full text of Dryden translation, [At MIT]
    • Ovid (43 BCE-17CE): Amores, selections, trans. John Porter, [At Univ. of Saskatchewan]
    • Ovid (43 BCE-17CE): Art of Love esp. 2. 663-746 and 3.769-812.
      Generally about heterosexual love, but with specific comparisons with the love of youths.
    • Virgil (70-19 BCE): Aeneid 9 [At EWAC]
      Virgil tells of the heroic deaths of the lovers Nisus and Euralus.
    • Virgil (70-19 BCE): Eclogues, Complete. [In English, trans. Dryden] [At Virginia Tech].
      See especially Eclogue II -On Corydon and Alexis. Love, not just sex, is the issue here. Also see Eclogue VII.
    • Virgil (70-19 BCE): Eclogues Complete, In Latin [At The Latin Library]
    • Valerius Maxiumus (early 1st Cent CE): The History of Damon and Pythias from De Amicitiae Vinculo
    • Seneca (4 BCE-65 CE): Natural Questions 1.16.1-3
      Seneca discusses a man who likes to be "passive" in sex.
    • Seneca (4 BCE-65 CE): Moral Letters 122
      What "natural" and "unnatural" meant to a stoic philosopher.
    • Petronius Arbiter (d.65 CE): Satyricon, 16-25 (p. 31-38 Arrowsmith), 126-140 (p. 142-163 Arrowsmith).
    • Martial (c.40-103 CE): Epigrams
    • Statius (c.40-c.96 CE): Sylvae Book 2
    • Juvenal (early 2nd C. CE): Satire II - Against Hypocritical Queens [At The Latin Library. In Latin.
    • Juvenal (early 2nd C. CE): Satire IX, [At Classics Homepage. In Latin]
      On male hustlers.
    • Lucian (c.115-189 CE) [writes in Greek]: Toxaris
      A dialogue between a Greek and a Scythian about customs of "philia" (friendship). The text is of major interest in assessing the play of same-sex "friendship" in the history of sexuality. While sexual activity is not made the focus, desire for the "friend" is a focal concern.
    • Lucian (c.115-189 CE) [writes in Greek]: Charidemus
      A discussion of the nature of beauty - of males.
    • Lucian (c.115-189 CE) [writes in Greek]: Dialogue of the Courtesans 5
      An important discussion of Lesbianism.
    • Ps.-Lucian (Lucian c.115-180 CE) [writes in Greek]: The History of Orestes and Pylades, from Amores or Affairs of the Heart
      Although there has been a recent emphasis on the age-dissonant and time-limited nature of Greek homosexual relationships, Orestes and Pylades were presented as models for reciprocal and lasting eros.
    • The Priapea, [At The Latin Library]
      This is the complete Latin text of the Priapea, with vocabulary and notes presented via a view program. You have to download the zipped file, and run it on a Windows computer.
    • The Priapea, [At plaintext.com]
      A complete English translation, by Ned Tuck (in 1981), of these anonymous first century Latin poems dedicated to the Roman God of the priapus. The site uses Aubrey Beardsley's illustrations.

    Texts: Historical

    • Polybius (c.200-after 118 BCE) [writes in Greek]: Histories VI: 37.9
    • Cicero (106-43 BCE): Second Philippic Against Anthony 18
    • Cicero (106-43 BCE): Laelius, or on Friendship [At Ancient History Sourcebooks]
    • Livy (59 BCE-17 CE): Histories 8: 28
      Livy's account of the homosexual affair in 428 AUC/326 BCE which led to the abolition of imprisonment for debt in Rome. A creditor tried to force a debtor to have sex with him and this enraged the public.
    • Plutarch (46-120 CE) [writes in Greek]: On Sulla and Metrobius, the full text of the Life of Sulla also available [At MIT]
    • Plutarch (46-120 CE): Life of Anthony, (complete) [At MIT]
      Early sections describe Anthony's early affair with Curio.
    • Suetonius (b.c.70-d. after 121 CE): Julius Caesar 2, 45-53
      Caesar - every man's woman, and every woman's man!
    • Suetonius (b.c.70-d. after 121 CE): Augustus 68-71
    • Suetonius (b.c.70-d. after 121 CE): Tiberius 42-45
      Not a nice guy. The old Loeb version kept this in Latin. Not here though!
    • Suetonius (b.c.70 d. after 121 CE): Caligula 24-25, 36
    • Suetonius (b.c.70 d. after 121 CE): Nero 27-29.
      Includes an account of Nero's two homosexual "marriages".
    • Suetonius (b.c.70 d. after 121 CE): Galba 22.
      Galba as an older homosexual who prefers other older men.
    • Suetonius (b.c.70 d. after 121 CE): Otho 12.
    • Suetonius (b.c.70 d. after 121 CE): Vitellius 3-5
    • Suetonius (b.c.70 d. after 121 CE): Titus 2-3, 7
    • Suetonius (b.c.70 d. after 121 CE): Domitian Domitian 7-8, 18-22
    • Suetonius (b.c.70 d. after 121 CE): Life of Tibellus [Attrib.]
    • Suetonius (b.c.70 d. after 121 CE): Life of Vergil [Attrib.]
    • Suetonius (b.c.70 d. after 121 CE): Life of Horace [prob. not by Suetonius.]
    • Tacitus (b. 56/57-d.after 117 CE): On Homosexuality, selections from The Annals
    • Tacitus (b. 56/57-d.after 117 CE): The Annals, Full Text [At MIT]
    • Battakes and the Plebian Tribune, A Gallus before the Senate, [At Aztriad]
    • Aelius Lampridius: The Life of Elagabalus Antoninus, Loeb version. See also the Latin Text. [At Heliogabby]
      Called a "farago of cheap pornography" by Sir Ronald Syme!
    • Dio Cassius: Epitome of Book LXXX, On Elagabulus, Loeb version, [At Heliogabby]
    • Soranus (2nd. C. CE) [wrote in Greek], On Pathics, as summarized in Caelius Aurelianus: On Acute Diseases and on Chronic Diseases IV.9.131-137
      Vern Bullough thought this passage a counter to the apparent proliferation of homosexuality in other literature since it seeks to counter doubts that "passive" homosexuals exist. Its interest is much wider, as Soranus presents his opinion that passive homosexuality, and lesbianism, is a "disease of the mind" and hereditary.

    Websites:

    Back to Contents


    © 1997, Paul Halsall, halsall@murray.fordham.edu [a picture!]
    Note: I read all mail, and keep much of it, but I will not be able to reply to all notes.

    Last updated April 10, 2007.