Modern History Sourcebook:
Catherine the Great
Catherine II (l762-1796), a German princess who became Empress
of Russia after disposing of her ineffectual husband was one of
the most successful European monarchs. She followed Peter the
Great in seeing Russia (which had been part of an Asian Empire
for centuries) as European Power. Among her other achievements,
added some 200 000 square miles to the territory of the Russian
empire. The following letter was written by a French diplomat in Moscow.
From Letter of Baron de Breteuil
This princess seems to combine every kind of ambition in her person.
Everything that may add luster to her reign will have some attraction
for her. Science and the arts will be encouraged to flourish in
the empire, projects useful for the domestic economy will be undertaken.
She will endeavor to reform the administration of justice and
to invigorate the laws; but her policies will be based on Machiavellianism;
and I should not be surprised if in this field she rivals the
king of Prussia. She will adopt the prejudices of her entourage
regarding the superiority of her power and will endeavor to win
respect not by the sincerity and probity of her actions but also
by an ostentatious display of her strength. Haughty as she is,
she will stubbornly pursue her undertakings and will rarely retrace
a false step. Cunning and falsity appear to be vices in her character;
woe to him who puts too much trust in her. Love affairs may become
a stumbling block to her ambition and prove fatal for her peace
of mind. This passionate princess, still held in check by the
fear and consciousness of internal troubles, will know no restraint
once she believes herself firmly established.
From A Source Book for Russian History, G. Vernadsky, trans.
(New Haven: Yale University Press, 1972), Vol. 2.
In 1767 Catherine summoned an assembly to draft a new code
of laws for Russia and gave detailed instructions to the members
about the principles they should apply. (The proposed code never
went into effect.) The code drips with "enlightend language":
the reality of government in Russia was rather different.
From Catherine II. Proposals for a New Law Code
6. Russia is an European State.
7. This is clearly demonstrated by the following Observations:
The Alterations which Peter the Great undertook in Russia
succeeded with the greater Ease, because the Manners, which prevailed
at that Time, and had been introduced amongst us by a Mixture
of different Nations, and the Conquest of foreign Territories,
were quite unsuilable to the Climate. Peter the First, by
introducing the Manners and Customs of Europe among the European
People in his Dominions, found at that Time such Means as even
he himself was not sanguine enough to expect....
8. The Possessions of the Russian Empire extend upon the terrestrial
Globe to 32 Degrees of Latitude, and to 165 of Longitude.
9. The Sovereign is absolute; for there is no other Authority
but that which centers in his single Person, that can act with
a Vigour proportionate to the Extent of such a vast Dominion.
10. The Extent of the Dominion requires an absolute Power to be
vested in that Person who rules over it. It is expedient so to
be, that the quick Dispatch of Affairs, sent from distant Parts,
might make ample Amends for the Delay occasioned by the great
Distance of the Places.
11. Every other Form of Government whatsoever would not only have
been prejudicial to Russia, but would even have proved its entire
12. Another Reason is: That it is better to be subject to the
Laws under one Master, than to be subservient to many.
13. What is the true End of Monarchy? Not to deprive People of
their natural Liberty; but to correct their Actions, in order
to attain the supreme Good. 14. The Form of Government, therefore, which best attains this
End, and at the same Time sets less Bounds than others to natural
Liberty, is that which coincides with the Views and Purposes of
rational Creatures, and answers the End, upon which we ought to
fix a steadfast Eye in the Regulations of civil Polity.
15. The Intention and the End of Monarchy, is the Glory of the
Citizens, of the State, and of the Sovereign.
16. But, from this Glory, a Sense of Liberty arises in a People
governed by a Monarch; which may produce in these States as much
Energy in transacting the most important Affairs, and may contribute
as much to the Happiness of the Subjects, as even Liberty itself....
33. The Laws ought to be so framed, as to secure the Safety of
every Citizen as much as possible.
34. The Equality of the Citizens consists in this; that they should
all be subject to the same Laws.
35. This Equality requires Institutions so well adapted, as to
prevent the Rich from oppressing those who are not so wealthy
as themselves, and converting all the Charges and Employments
intrusted to them as Magistrates only, to their own private Emolument....
37. In a State or Assemblage of People that live together in a
Community, where there are Laws, Liberty can only consist in
doing that which every One ought to do, and not to be constrained
to do that which One ought not to do. 38. A Man ought to form in his own Mind an exact and clear Idea
of what Liberty is. Liberty is the Right of doing whatsoever
the Laws allow: And if any one Citizen could do what the Laws
forbid, there would be no more Liberty; because others would have
an equal Power of doing the same.
39. The political Liberty of a Citizen is the Peace of Mind arising
from the Consciousness, that every Individual enjoys his peculiar
Safety; and in order that the People might attain this Liberty,
the Laws ought to be so framed, that no one Citizen should stand
in Fear of another; but that all of them should stand in Fear
of the same Laws....
123. The Usage of Torture is contrary to all the Dictates of Nature
and Reason; even Mankind itself cries out against it, and demands
loudly the total Abolition of it.
180. That Law, therefore, is highly beneficial to the Community
where it is established, which ordains that every Man shall be
judged by his Peers and Equals. For when the Fate of a Citizen
is in Question, all Prejudices arising from the Difference of
Rank or Fortune should be stifled; because they ought to have
no Influence between the Judges and the Parties accused.
194. (1.) No Man ought to be looked upon as guilty, before
he has received his judicial Sentence; nor can the Laws deprive
him of their Protection, before it is proved that he has
forfeited all Right to it. What Right therefore can Power
give to any to inflict Punishment upon a Citizen at a Time, when
it is yet dubious, whether he is Innocent or guilty? 250. A Society of Citizens, as well as every Thing else, requires
a certain fixed Order: There ought to be some to govern, and others to obey. 251. And this is the Origin of every Kind
of Subjection; which feels itself more or less alleviated, in
Proportion to the Situation of the Subjects.
252. And, consequently, as the Law of Nature commands Us to take
as much Care, as lies in Our Power, of the Prosperity of
all the People; we are obliged to alleviate the Situation of the
Subjects, as much as sound Reason will permit.
253. And therefore, to shun all Occasions of reducing People to
a State of Slavery, except the utmost Necessity should inevitably oblige us to do it; in that Case, it ought not
to be done for our own Benefit; but for the Interest of the State:
Yet even that Case is extremely uncommon.
254. Of whatever Kind Subjection may be, the civil Laws ought
to guard, on the one Hand, against the Abuse of Slavery,
and, on the other, against the Dangers which may arise
269. It seems too, that the Method of exacting their Revenues, newly invented by the Lords, diminishes both the Inhabitants, and the Spirit of Agriculture in Russia. Almost all
the Villages are heavily taxed. The Lords, who seldom or
never reside in their Villages, lay an Impost on every
Head of one, two, and even five Rubles, without the least Regard
to the Means by which their Peasants may be able to raise this Money.
270. It is highly necessary that the Law should prescribe a Rule
to the Lords, for a more judicious Method of raising their Revenues;
and oblige them to levy such a Tax, as tends least to
separate the Peasant from his House and Family; this would be
the Means by which Agriculture would become more extensive, and
Population be more increased in the Empire.
From Documents of Catherine the Great: The Correspondence with
Voltaire and the Instructionof l767 in the English Text of l768,
W. F. Reddaway, trans. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,
1931), pp. 216-17, 219, 231, 241, 244, 256 258.
From Decree on Serfs (1767)
Although Catherine liked to use the liberal rhetoric of the
Enlightenment, she actually ruled Russia with a heavy hand. Her
government enacted this decree f- in the same year that the instructions
about the proposed law code were issued.
The Governing Senate. . . has deemed it necessary to make known
> that the landlords' serfs and peasants . . . owe their landlords
proper submission and absolute obedience in all matters, according
to the laws r that have been enacted from time immemorial by the
autocratic forefathers of Her Imperial Majesty and which have
not been repealed, and which provide that all persons who dare
to incite serfs and peasants to disobey their landlords shall
be arrested and taken to the nearest government office, there
to be punished forthwith as disturbers of the public tranquillity,
according to the laws and without leniency. And should it so happen
that even after the publication of the present decree of Her Imperial
Majesty any serfs and peasants should cease to give the proper
obedience to their landlords . . . and should make bold to submit
unlawful petitions complaining of their landlords, and especially
to petition Her Imperial Majesty personally, then both those who
make the complaints and those who write up the petitions shall
be punished by the knout and forthwith deported to Nerchinsk to
penal servitude for life and shall be counted as part of the quota
of recruits which their landlords must furnish to the army. And
in order that people everywhere may know of the present decree,
it shall be read in all the churches on Sundays and holy days
for one month after it is received and therafter once every year
during the great church festivals, lest anyone pretend ignorance.
From A Source Book for Russian History, G. Vernadsky, trans.
(New Haven: Yale University Press, 1972), Vol. 2, pp. 453-454.
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(c)Paul Halsall Aug 1997