MODERN HISTORY SOURCEBOOK
CRIB SHEET: The Russian Revolution
[Note: Crib Sheets are meant as review aids for a particular
period/theme. They are not complete overviews!]
Geography of Russia
- 1/6th earth's land surface.
- Understand difference between "Russia" and "Soviet
Union" or "USSR"
- Slavic language
- Russian Orthodox Church
- Byzantine Background
- Tsar/Czar (= Caesar or Emperor)
- Government is an autocracy
- Most people are peasants. Most peasants were serfs until 1861.
- Ivan the Terrible 1533-1584
- Peter the Great 1688-1725 - builds new capital city - St.
- Catherine the Great 1762-1796
- Alexander I 1802-1825
- Nicholas I 1825-1855 - begins policy of Official Nationality - slogan "Orthodoxy, Autocracy and Nationalism".
Russia under Alexander II 1855-81 (the Liberator)
- Abolition of serfdom 1861
Peasants were forced to live in Mirs: a communal landholding
- Population Growth from 1860: 50 to 100 Million 1860 - 1900
Alexander III 1881-1894
- Very rapid Industrialization under Sergei Witte
The Lead-Up to Revolution
Opposition: The Intellegensia
- Organization - "Land and Freedom" - Populists/Narodniks
- "The People's Will", a terrorist group, kill Tsar
in March 1881.
New Political Parties
- Social Revolutionaries 1901
- Constitutional Democrats (Cadets) 1903
- Social Democrats 1898
- George Plekhanov 1857-1918 Founder of Social Democrats
Vladmir Illich Ulyanov "Lenin" 1870-1923
- Theories in What is to be Done? 1902
- "Vanguard of the Revolution", "democratic centralism"
- "Strategy" - long term goal, not to be altered/
"Tactics" - day to day flexibility
Origins of Bolshevism
- London Conference 1903
- Mensheviks (=minority) split from Bolsheviks (=majority)
The 1905 Revolution
- Father Gapon - March on Winter Palace Jan 22 1905.
- "Soviets" (Worker's Councils) set up.
- Tsar Nicholas II responds with The October Manifesto
-Grants a Duma (Parliament) and some civil liberties.
- Peter Stolypin 1862-1911 - Prime Minister 1906-1911
- Nicholas I 1894 -1917 and Alexandra.
- The Tsarvitch and Hemophilia.
- Grigory Efimovich Rasputin (1871?-1916)
The 1917 Revolutions
First World War 1914-1918
- Russia battle preparedness - boots, guns,
February Revolution 1917 (March 1917 New Calendar)
- Long-standing causes - peasants anger about land,
- Population explosion 1860-1914, Workers' discontent
- Workers Revolt - Feb 23 1917
- Petrograd Soviet of Workers and Soldiers set up
- A Provisional Government set up by the Duma
- Problems: Continuation of the War, Return of Lenin and other
Bolsheviks, Continuing Unrest in the cities.
- Alexander Kerensky (1881-1970) - chief minister from
July 1917. Kornilov Plot shows his weakness.
October Revolution 1917
- Bolshevik Slogans: "Peace, Bread and Land",
"All power to the Soviets"
- Attack on Winter Palace October 1917 (November 6-7-8 new Calendar)
Bolsheviks Actions in Power
- Aim is to secure power
- -Constituent Assembly dissolved December 1918
- -Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, March 3 1918 ends war with Germany
- -Nationalization of all factories - June 1918
- -Execution of the Tsar and his Family 1918
Civil War 1917-1921
- Red Army, led by Trotsky, vs. the "Whites".
- War Communism - a collection of emergency measures:-
- -The Cheka - secret police from December 1917
- -Communist Party control of the State
- -Nationalization of production
- -Opposition suppressed Kronstadt Rebellion March 1921
The Third International (Cominintern)
- 1919 split European socialists into "Communists"
and "Social Democrats".
New Economic Policy March 1921
- Aim - increased food production. Incentives were allowed.
- Peasants allowed to farm for profit and small businesses with
up to 12 workers allowed.
- Economy recovered by 1927.
- Kulaks - rich peasants become important.
Stalin Takes Over
- Struggle between Leon Trotsky, who wanted rapid industrialization,
and Nicolai Bukharin, the editor of Pravda, who
- Josef Djugushvili "Stalin" (1879-1953). An
ally of Bukharin. By 1912 on Central Committee. Succeeds by controlling
Stalin in power
- A revolution from above - Doctrine of "socialism in one
- Agriculture - collectivization of land: perhaps 10 Million
people died in forced collectivization.
- Rapid Industrialization:
Five Year Plans Began in 1928
1928-1940, 400% increase in production
- Purges and Personality Cult: Show Trials 1936-38
© 1997, Paul Halsall, email@example.com