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Modern History Sourcebook:
Tables Illustrating the Spread of Industrialization

Table 1

Percentage Distribution of the World's Manufacturing Production,

1870 and 1913

(percentage of world total)

1870

1913

USA 23.3 35.8
Germany 13.2 15.7
U.K. 31.8 14.0
France 10.3 6.4
Russia 3.7 5.5
Italy 2.4 2.7
Canada 1.0 2.3
Belgium 2.9 2.1
Sweden 0.4 1.0
Japan 1.2
India 11.0 1.1
Other Countries 12.2

Table 2

The Rate of Industrial Growth in Five Selected Countries

Indices of Industrial Production

(Base Figures - 1905-13 = 100)

UK

France

Germany

Russia

Italy

1781-90 3.8 10.9 - - -
1801-14 7.1 12.3 - - -
1825-34 18.8 21.5 - - -
1845-54 27.5 33.7 11.7 - -
1865-74 49.2 49.8 24.2 13.5 42.9
1885-94 70.5 68.2 45.3 38.7 54.6
1905-13 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
% of world industrial production in 1913 14.0 6.4 17.7 5.5 2.7

Table 3

Output of Coal and Lignite - Selected Countries, Annual Averages

(in million metric tonnes)

UK

France

Germany

Austria

Belgium

Russia

1820-4 17.7 1.1 1.2 0.1 - -
1840-4 34.2 3.5 4.4 0.52 4.1 -
1860-4 86.3 10.0 20.8 4.1 10.2 0.04
1880-4 158.9 20.2 65.7 17.0 17.5 3.7
1900-4 230.4 33.0 157.3 38.8 23.3 17.3

Table 4

Output of Pig Iron - Selected Countries, Annual Averages

(in thousand metric tons)

UK

France

Germany

Austria

Belgium

Russia

1781-90 69 141 - - - -
1825-29 669 212 90 85 - 164
1855-59 3,583 900 422 306 312 254
1875-79 6,484 1,462 1,770 418 484 424
1900-14 8,778 2,665 7,925 1,425 1,070 2,773

Table 5

Growth of the Cotton Industry in Selected Countries

(Cotton Spindles - Selected Countries, Annual Total Figures [in 1000's])

UK

France

Germany

Austria

Belgium

Russia

1834 10,000 2,500 626(`36) 800 200 700 (1840)
1877 39,500 5,000 4,700 1,558 800 2,500
1913 55,700 7,400 11,186 4,909 1,492 9,212

Table 6

[See this data presented in a variety of ways - Table 6 Extra]

Spread of Railways in Ten Selected Countries

(Length of line open [in kilometers [1km = 5/8 mile])

1840

1860

1880

1900

Austria-Hungary 144 4,543 18,507 36,330
Belgium 334 1,730 4,112 4,591
France 496 9,167 23,089 38,109
Germany 469 11,089 33,838 51,678
Great Britain 2,390 14,603 25,060 30,079
Italy 20 2,404 9,290 16,429
Netherlands 17 335 1,846 2,776
Russia 27 1,626 22,865 53,234
Spain - 1,917 7,490 13,214
Sweden - 527 5,876 11,303

Table 7

Illiteracy in Europe, c. 1850

(Approximate Percentage of Adult Illiterates is Indicated Where Known)

Countries with less than 30% illiterate

Countries with 30 to 50% illiterate

Countries with over 50% illiterate

Denmark Austria 40-45% Bulgaria
Germany Belgium 45-50% Greece
(Prussia 20%) England 30-33% Hungary
Netherlands France 40-45% Italy 75-80%
Scotland 20% Portugal
Sweden 10% Rumania
Switzerland Russia 90-95%
Serbia
Spain 75%

Table 8

Population

(tentative estimates in millions - much of it guesswork)

*

1750/1

1800/1

1850/1

1990

Great Britain 7.4 10.5 20.8 57.1
France 21 27.3 35.8 56.1
Germany | 34.0 79.0
|-[Germ+Aust] 18 23
Austria | 17.5 7.6
Hungary 3.5 5.0 13.2 10.5
Belgium 2.2 3.1 4.3 9.9
Italy 16.0 19.0 24.4 57.6
Netherlands 1.6 2.1 3.1 14.9
Portugal 2.3 2.9 3.5 10.5
Russia 28 40.0 68.5 146.4
Spain 8.2 10.5 15.0 39.6
Sweden 1.8 2.3 3.5 8.4
EUROPE (approx) 132.0 190.0 260.0 775.0

Notes:

Austria and Hungary in the 19th century included many areas now independent. Modern Germany is somewhat smaller that Bismarckian Empire. 1990 figures for Russia are for the Russian Federation. To compare with the 19th century Ukraine's [52 Million] and Belorussia's [10.3 Million] figures must be taken into account.

Sources:

Table 1: League of Nations: Industrialization and World Trade (1945)

Tables 2-7: are based on the statistical appendices in the Fontana Economic History of Europe Vol 4, Part 2

Table 8: History Faculty at the University of Edinburgh 1978 [keep those undergraduate notes!]. 1990 figures from World Almanac 1992.


This text is part of the Internet Modern History Sourcebook. The Sourcebook is a collection of public domain and copy-permitted texts for introductory level classes in modern European and World history.

Unless otherwise indicated the specific electronic form of the document is copyright. Permission is granted for electronic copying, distribution in print form for educational purposes and personal use. If you do reduplicate the document, indicate the source. No permission is granted for commercial use of the Sourcebook.

(c)Paul Halsall Aug 1997
halsall@murray.fordham.edu