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Internet Ancient History Sourcebook:
Greece


See Main Page for a guide to all contents of all sections.

Contents


General

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Greece: Major Historians: Complete Texts

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Crete

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Mycenae

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Archaic Greece

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The Persian Wars (449-479 BCE)

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The Rise of the Polis

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The Age of Tyranny

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Athenian Democracy

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Sparta

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The Peloponnesian War (431-404 BCE) and After

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The Fourth Century: Competing Hegemonies
  • Xenophon (c.428-c.354 BCE): The Battle of Leuctra, (371 BCE) from the Hellenica [At this Site]
    Account of the defeat of Sparta by Theban forces and the ending of the Spartan supremacy..
  • Cornelius Nepos (c.99-c.24 BCE): From Life of Epaminondas (d.362 BCE)(written c. 30 BCE) [This Site]
  • Plutarch (c.46-c.120 CE): Life of Pelopidas (c.410- 362 BCE)[At MIT]
  • Xenophon (c.428-c.354 BCE): Anabasis, or March Up Country or Persia Expedition, full text [At this Site]
    The story of a Greek army of mercenaries and their march into the Persian Empire.

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Philip II of Macedon (r. 339-336 BCE)

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Religion and Myth

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Philosophy
  • Socrates (469-399 BCE)
    • Aristophanes (c.445-c.385 BCE): The Clouds, extracts [At Then Again]
      Pokes fun at Socrates.
    • Plato (427-347 BCE): The Apology, [At EAWC][Full Text]
      See 2ND Study Guide [At Brooklyn College]
    • Plato (427-347 BCE): Last Days of Socrates [Website]
      Texts from Euthyphro, Apology, Crito and Phaedo.
    • Xenophon (c.428-c.354 BCE): On Socrates [At CSUN]
    • Xenophon (c.428-c.354 BCE): The Symposium [Full Text][This Site]
  • Plato (427-347 BCE)
  • Aristotle (384-323 BCE)
    • 2ND Aristotle, Peripatetics, Theophrastus [IEP Articles]
    • Full Texts
      The links here are to the plain text version at various sites or here. [The old Virgina Tech gopher site has disappeared, but these files are from there.] In addition there are HTML versions of all texts available at WEB MIT Classics Archive.
      • Nichomachean Ethics [At this Site, formerly ERIS][Full Text][Ascii Text in one file]
      • Politics [At this Site, formerly ERIS][Full Text][Ascii Text in one file]
      • Metaphysics [At this Site, formerly ERIS][Full Text][Ascii Text in one file]
      • Physics [At this Site, formerly ERIS][Full Text][Ascii Text in one file]
      • Poetics [At this Site, formerly ERIS][Full Text][Ascii Text in one file]
      • Rhetoric [At Iowa State]
    • Excerpts for Teaching

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Literature
  • Selections from Greek Lyric Poets [At Saskatachewan]
    Archilochus (1st half 7th Cent BCE), Alcaeus (Late 7th/early 6th Cent BCE), Mimnermus (Late 7th/Early 6th Cent BCE), Ibycus (2nd half 6th Cent BCE), Anacreon (2nd half 6th Cent BCE), and Xenophanes (c.570-c.478BCE)
  • Archilochus (1st half 7th Cent BCE): Selection [At Saskatchewan]
  • Sappho (c.580 BCE): Poems, at [Sappho.com]
  • Theognis (6th Cent. BCE): Selections [At Saskatchewan]
  • Aesop (d. 564 BCE): Fables, text, [At Eserver]
  • Aesop (6th Century BCE): Fables, HTML, [At this Site]
  • 2ND The Rediscovery of Writing in Greece [At Internet Archive, from Reed]

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Literature: Theatre

All the major Greek plays are online, as well as substantial amount of criticism and theorising. The links here are to the plain text version at various sites or here. [The old Virgina Tech gopher site has disappeared, but these files are from there.]

In addition there are HTML versions of all text available at

  • Theatre Practice
  • Drama Theory
    • Documents on The Hellenic Drama, c. 560 - 330 BCE [At this Site]
      The historical origins, from Plutarch, Demosthenes, and Aristotle.
    • Plato (427-347 BCE): Ion [At MIT]
    • Plato (427-347 BCE): The Republic
    • Aristotle (384-323 BCE): The Poetics, excerpts, [At this Site]
    • Aristotle (384-323 BCE): Poetics [At Mit][Full Text][Chapter length files]
      See 2ND Study Guide [At Brooklyn College]
  • Aeschylus (525-456 BCE)
    The earliest of the three great Greek tragic dramatists (the others are Sophocles and Euripides). He introduced the second actor into the play. He is thought to have written 80-90 plays, of which 7 survive.
    • The Suppliants prob. 463 BCE
    • Oresteia trilogy 458 BCE
      • Agamemnon [At this Site, formerly ERIS]
      • The Choephori
      • Eumendides [At this Site, formerly ERIS]
    • The Seven Against Thebes 467 BCE
    • Prometheus Bound date unknown
    • The Persians 472 BCE [annotated HTML] [At Calgary]
    • The Persians 472 BCE [At Saskatchewan]
  • Sophocles (496-405/6 BCE)
    The second of the great tragic poets. He wrote over 100 plays, but only seven complete ones survive. The dates here are likely but not certain.
    • Ajax 440 BCE
    • Antigone 442 BCE [At this Site, formerly ERIS]
      See 2ND Study Guide [At Brooklyn College]
    • Antigone 442 BCE [At Diotima]
      A much more modern translation, with extensive annotation.
    • Electra btw. 418-410 BCE
    • Philoctetes 409 BCE
    • Oedipus the King c.430 BC
    • See 2ND Study Guide [At Brooklyn College]
    • Oedipus at Colonna c.405/6 BCE [At MIT]
    • The Trachiniae c.430 BCE
    • Euripides: Helen, a modern actable translation by Andrew Wilson [At Classics Pages]
  • Euripides (c.485-406 BCE)
    A younger contemporary of Sophocles, and third of the great tragic playwrights. He introduced deus ex machina as a plot device. Of the 92 plays ascribed to him, 19 survive
    • 2ND 11th Brittanica: Euripides [At this Site]
    • Alcestis
    • Andromache
    • The Bacchae [At this Site, formerly ERIS] won trilogy competition, posthumously, in c.405 BCE
      See 2ND Study Guide [At Brooklyn College]
    • The Cyclops
    • Electra
    • Hecuba
    • Helen, a modern actable translation by Andrew Wilson [At Classics Pages]
    • The Heracleidae
    • Heracles
    • Hippolytus [At this Site, formerly ERIS] won trilogy competition in 428 BCE.
    • Ion
    • Iphigenia at Aulis won trilogy competition, posthumously, in c.405 BCE
    • Iphigenia In Tauris
    • Medea
      See 2ND Study Guide [At Brooklyn College]
    • Orestes a modern actable translation by Andrew Wilson [At Classics Pages]
    • The Phoenissae a modern actable translation by Andrew Wilson [At Classics Pages]
    • Rhesus
    • The Suppliants
    • The Trojan Women
  • Aristophanes (c.445-c.385 BCE)
    The greatest comic playwrights, he wrote in the rough style later known as   "old comedy". He wrote 54(?) comedies, but only 11 survived.
    See 2ND Old Comedy Study Guide [At Brooklyn College]
  • Menander (342/1-293/89 BCE)

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Art

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Music

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Education

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Economic Life

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Slavery

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Greek Law

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Everyday Life

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Gender and Sexuality

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Modern Perspectives on Ancient Greece

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NOTES:

Dates of accession of material added since July 1998 can be seen in the New Additions page..

The date of inception was 4/8/1998.

Links to files at other site are indicated by [At some indication of the site name or location].

Locally available texts are marked by [At this Site].

WEB indicates a link to one of small number of high quality web sites which provide either more texts or an especially valuable overview.


The Internet Ancient History Sourcebook is part of the
Internet History Sourcebooks Project