Internet Medieval Sourcebook
Selected Sources: Empire and Papacy
The "Empire and Papacy" has been a theme of medieval history teaching for so
long that students might be forgiven for being bored out of their minds. What, they might
ask, is the possible use of studying conflicts between long dead popes and emperors.
In fact this seemingly arcane dispute had major consequences for the history of Western
- Nation-States: The papal-imperial conflict lead to the weakening of the
Western (Holy Roman) Empire, the first strong state with staying power after the
5th-century collapse of Roman Empire in the West. Instead a series of
proto-"nation" states [France, England, Spain, Portugal] achieved great power
and eventually set the "nation-state" rather than the "imperial"
standard for all European states.
- Separation of Church and State: The conflict between church and state
firmly established that church and state were distinct
entities. This is in dramatic contrast to Islam, which never made a distinction between
"religion" and "politics"; and in contrast equally to the
"Byzantine model" of "symphony" between church and state.
- Effect on Law and Education: Because both "Papal" and
"Imperial" sides in the dispute had a real basis for their power, the conflict
was long-lasting. Each side, then, tried to prove its case by consulting earlier
"authoritative" documents. In the short term this lead to a revival in the study
of Roman Law, a legal approach which has since come to predominate in
much of the world. In the longer term, the fighting lawyers had to collect information,
organize it, and then work out the principles of interpretation [e.g. was a later or
earlier law most authoritative]. They had to do all this while making arguments against
each other. In time these procedures affected western higher education,
which eschewed memory methods, and insisted that students Plearn to collect, organize and
interpret material, and then defend their conclusions in argument.
Phase I: The Invesituture
- Emergence of Reform Ideology
- The Conflict over Investitures
- [Tierney 36.3] Gregory VII: Lay Investitures Forbidden,
- [Geary 39.1] Gregory VII: Letter to Henry IV, Jul 20, 1075, copyrighted?
- [Geary 39.2] Gregory VII: Letter to Henry IV, Dec 8, 1075 or Jan 8, 1076, copyrighted?
- [Geary 39.6] Henry IV: Letter to Roman Clergy and People, 1076, copyrighted?
- [Geary 39.7] Henry IV: Letter to Gregory VII, 1076, copyrighted?
- [Tierney 37.1, Geary 39.9] Henry IV: Letter to
Gregory VII, Jan 24 1076.
- [Geary 39.10] Henry IV: Letter to His Bishops, 1076, copyrighted?
- [Tierney 37.2] Gregory VII: Deposition of Henry IV, ,
Feb 22 1076.
- [Geary 39.3] Gregory VII: Letter to All the Faithful in Germany, 1076, copyrighted?
- [Geary 39.4] Gregory VII: Letter to Hermann of Metz, Aug 26,1076, copyrighted?
- [Geary 39.8] German Bishops: Renunciation of Gregory VII, Synod of Worms, 1076, copyrighted?
- [Geary 39.11] Henry IV: Promise to Gregory VII, 1076, copyrighted?
- [Geary 39.12] Henry IV: Letter to His Princes, 1076, copyrighted?
- [Geary 39.13] Henry IV: Letter to His Mother, 1074-1076, copyrighted?
- [Geary 39.14] Henry IV: Vow at Canossa, 1077, copyrighted?
- [Geary 39.5] Gregory VII: To German Princes, on Canossa, Jan.1077, copyrighted?
- Gregory VII: Bans on Lay Invesititures, 1078 and
- [Tierney 37.3] Gregory VII: Second Banning of Henry IV,
March 7 1080.
- [Tierney 38.1] Ivo of Chartres: Letter to Hugo 1097, copyrighted
- [Geary 39.15] Decree of Synod of Brixen, 1080, copyrighted?
- [Geary 39.16] Henry IV: To Clergy and People of Rome, 1081, copyrighted?
Barbarossa: The Empire at its Height
- The Besançon Episode 1157-
- [Tierney 57] Otto of Freising: Deeds of Frederick Barbarossa: Incident at
Besançon, 1157 copyrighted, but see next item
- The Besançon Episode 1157, - in the original
documents [A: Letter of Adrian IV. to Frederick Barbarossa, Sept. 20th, 1157; B: Manifesto
of the Emperor, Oct. 1157; C: Letter of Adrian IV. to the German Bishops; D: Letter of the
German Bishops to Adrian IV - including Frederick's defence of his position; E: Letter of
Adrian IV. to Frederick Barbarossa, Feb, 1158].
- Barbarossa and Alexander III
- Barbarossa in Italy
- Barbarossa and the Lombards. Excerpts from
the Diet of Ronçaglia, 1158, and The Peace of Constance, January 25, 1183.
- [Geary 41] Otto of Friesing: Deeds of Frederick Barbarossa, copyrighted.
- Canonical Response
Innocent III: The Papacy
at its Height
- [Tierney 59] Innocent III: Letters [r.1198-1215], copyrighted
- Innocent III (r.1198-1216): Letters on Papal
- Letter to Acerbius, 1198 (on papal authority)
- Papal Policies: Letter to the Archbishop of Auch, 1198 (on heresy):
Letter to the French bishops (on usury); Letter to a bishop (on tithes); Letter to the
Venetians, 1198 (on trade with the Saracens); A Papal Decree, 1199 (on the Jews)
- Innocent and his Royal Contemporaries: Interdict of France, 1200,
Decree on the Choice of a German King, 1201, Charter of Submission for the King of
- Innocent III (r.1198-1216): Letters on
Marriage, and Women, 1203-1204
- Innocent III (r.1198-1216): Protest to
Philip Augustus of France Against Royal Protection of Jewish Money-Lenders, 1204
- Innocent III (r.1198-1216): The Keeping of Slaves by
the Jews, 1204
- Innocent III (r.1198-1216): Sermon on the Resurrection
of the Lord. See also
Encyclopedia: Pope Innocent III.
- [Tierney 60, Geary 29] The Fourth Lateran Council:
Selected Canons. The Full Text of the Lateran canons
is also available.
The Holy Roman
Empire: Frederick II and After
The Papacy Overreaches
- Papal Claims
- Reaction: Political
- Reaction: Intellectual and Theological
- [Tierney 81.1] John of Paris: Tractatus de Potestate Regia et Papali 1302-03, copyrighted
- [Tierney 81.2] William of Ockham (1299-1350): Dialogus , copyrighted, but see
William of Ockham (1299-1350): Dialogus, Latin text
edition and English translation by John Kilcullen and John Scott. [At Britac]
- Raimon de Cornet (14th cent. troubadour): Poem
Criticizing the Avignon Papacy
- Petrarch (1304-1374): Letter Criticizing the
- [Geary 36] Marsiglio of Padua (d.1343): Defensor
Pacis: Selections from Text, 1324.
- [Tierney 81.3, Geary 36] Marsiglio of Padua (d.1343): Defensor
Pacis: Conclusions, 1324; Same Text with
Introduction also available, complete, and in a different version from Tierney. [Geary
has copyrighted selections from body of the text, chaps. 3 and 13.]
- John XXII: Condemnation of Marsiglio of Padua,
- [Tierney 81.4] The Condemnation of Wycliffe, 1382 and
Wycliffe's Reply, 1384. Also includes John Wycliffe (1324-1384): Condemned
Propositions 1382, [Different version from Tierney].
- John Wycliffe (1324-1384): On the Sacrament of
Communion [Excerpt from Trialogus]. See also
Catholic Encyclopedia: Utraquism.
- [Tierney 82] Dante Alighieri (1265-1321): Divine
Comedy: Inferno XIX - Hell: third pit - on Papal Avarice, [different trans. than
Tierney's]. See also
Encyclopedia: Dante Alighieri.
- Dante Alighieri (1265-1321): Divine Comedy:
Inferno XIX. [Another version]
- Desiderius Erasmus (ca. 1469-1536): The Praise of Folly (Moriae
Encomium), 1509 [At this Site][Full text]
Desiderius Erasmus, ca. 1469-1536): In
Praise of Folly, trans. John Wilson, 1688 [Full text] [At Project Gutenberg]
WEB More Erasmus texts are at the Erasmus Text Project [At Sewanee]
NOTES: copyrighted means the text is not available for free distribution. In
some cases alternate versions are available, and are working through the pipeline. Dates of accession of material can be seen in the New Accessions Page. The date of inception was 1/20/1996. Links to files at other site are indicated by [At some indication of the site name or
location]. No indication means that the text file is local. WEB indicates a link to one of small
number of high quality web sites which provide either more texts or an especially valuable
The Internet Medieval Sourcebook participates in
ORB, the Online Reference Book for
created 1996: last revised 3/21/2007