Hundred Years War: Treaty of Troyes, 1420 and Conditions in France in 1422
The Treaty of Troyes, 1420
6. After our death [Charles VI], and from that time forward, the crown and kingdom of
France, with all their rights and appurtenances, shall be vested permanently in our son
[son-inlaw], King Henry [of England], and his heirs.
7.....The power and authority to govern and to control the public affairs of the said
kingdom shall, during our lifetime, be vested in our son, King Henry, with the advice of
the nobles and wise men who are obedient to us, and who have consideration for the
advancement and honor of the said kingdom....
24.....[It is agreed] that the two kingdoms shall be governed from the time that our
said son, or any of his heirs shall assume the crown, not divided between different kings
at the same time, but under one person who shall be king and sovereign lord of both
kingdoms; observing all pledges and all other things to each kingdom its rights, liberties
or custons, usages and laws, not submitting in any manner one kingdom to the other.
29. In consideration of the frightful and astounding crimes and misdeeds committed
against the kingdom of France by Charles, the said Dauphin, it is agreed that we, our son
Henry, and also our very dear son Philip, duke of Burgundy, will never treat for peace or
amity with the said Charles.
from F. A. Ogg, A Source Book of Medieval History (New York, 1907), p. 443.
Conditions in France, c. 1422
Charles VI being dead, Charles VII succeeded to his father in the kingdom,
in the year of our Lord 1422, when he was about twenty-two years of age. In his time,
owing to the long wars wars which had raged within and without, the lethargy and
cowardliness of the officers and commanders who were under him, the destruction of all
military discipline and order, the rapacity of the troopers, and the general dissolution
into which all things had fallen, such destruction had been wrought from the Loire to the
Seine--even to the Somme--the farmers were dead or had fled, and almost all the fields had
for many years lain without cultivation or any one to cultivate them.
---------- If any kind of cultivation was still carried on in [Champagne,
Brie, Chartres, Perche, Beauvais, etc] it could only be done close to cities, towns, or
castles, no further away that the watch could be seen, stationed on a high lookout, whence
her could observe the robbers as they approached. He would then give the alarm by means of
a bell, or a hunter's horn, to those in the field or vineyard, so they could betake
themselves to a place of safety. This happened so frequently in many places that so soon
as the oxen and plow animals were loosed, having heard the signal of the watch, they
would, taught by long experience, rush to a place of safety in a state of terror. Even the
pigs and sheep did the same.
from sources in the Vatican Archives, in J. H. Robinson, Readings
in European History (Boston: 1904), p. 443.
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© Paul Halsall, July 1998