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INTERNET MODERN HISTORY SOURCEBOOK: The Long 19th Century

Notes:

WEB    Link to a World Wide Web site 
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RG    Reading Guide to a text 
SUMMARY    Summary (notes) sheet of period/issue 


Paul Halsall, halsall@fordham.edu, Sourcebook Compiler

Research Help

Although I am more than happy to receive notes if you have comments on this web site, I cannot answer specific research enquiries [and - for students - I cannot, or rather will not, do your homework.]  See the HELP! page for more suggestions on texts and research.

- page hits since September 22, 1997.


IMPORTANT: New Structure for the Modern History Sourcebook

As of January 20 1999, the Internet Modern History Sourcebook has been completely reorganized.  Each of the main sections had became too large [nearly 300k] to maintain as one file.  To see the new arrangement go to the Main Index.  The four older index files - Early Modern | Three Revolutions | 19th Century (this page) | Modern World - will all remain available indefinitely, and the URLs of individual files will not alter. But no new texts (after 12/31/1998) will be added to these large index pages. For new texts, use the new structure, or check the New Additions page.

The new structure also includes a comprehensive Full Texts index, a HELP! page, and a Search page.

CONTENTS


VI: The Century of Ideology and Power

The Council of Vienna System and Challenges

Nationalism

Nationalism was the most successful political force of the 19th century.  It emerged from two main sources: the Romantic exaltation of "feeling" and "identity" [see Herder above all on this] and the Liberal requirement that a legitimate state be based on a "people" rather than, for example, a dynasty, God, or imperial domination. Both Romantic "identity nationalism" and Liberal "civic nationalism" were essentially middle class movements. There were two main ways of exemplification: the French method of "inclusion" - essentially that anyone who accepted loyalty to the civil French state was a "citizen". In practice this meant the enforcement of a considerable degree of uniformity, for instance the destruction of regional languages. The US can be seen to have, eventually, adopted this ideal of civic inclusive nationalism. The German method, required by political circumstances, was todefine the "nation" in ethnic terms. Ethnicity in practice came down to speaking German and (perhaps) having a German name. For the largely German-speaking Slavic  middle classes of Prague, Agram etc. who took up the nationalist ideal, the ethnic aspect became even more important than it had been for the Germans. It is debateable whether, in practice,  all nationalisms ended up as Chauvinistic and aggressive, but the very nature of nationalism requires that boundaries be drawn. Unless these boundaries are purely civic, successful nationalism, in many cases produced a situation in which substantial groups of outsiders were left within "nation-states".

Conservatism

Liberalism

19th-Century Feminism

1848: Europe in Revolt

Britain

France

Austria-Hungary

Germany

Italy

Other Western European Countries

Eastern European Countries

Power and Ideology in the US: North vs. South


Canada: Another North American Society


Latin America

Australia and New Zealand

Responses to Economic Growth: Socialism and Marxism

Responses to Economic Growth: Imperialism

The Second Industrial Revolution and Advanced Capitalism

Contradictions of the Enlightenment:
Darwin, Freud, Einstein and Modern Art

Religion in the Face of Modernity

Back to Index



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© Paul Halsall January 1997 - July 1998
halsall@murray.fordham.edu