Department of Biological Sciences
Larkin Hall - 250 | 250A
441 East Fordham Road
Bronx, NY 10458
Phone: 718-817-3626 (Office); 718-817-3680 (Lab)
Email: [email protected]
B.S. in Biological Sciences (Chemistry Minor), University of New Orleans, 2004
Ph.D. in Neuroscience and Neurophysiology, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, 2011.
Postdoctoral Fellow, Dept. of Psychiatry, Columbia University, 2011-2013
Postdoctoral Research Scientist, Dept. of Psychiatry, Columbia University, 2013-2014
Associate Research Scientist, Dept. of Psychiatry, Columbia University, 2014-2015
Assistant Professor of Clinical Neurobiology (in Psychiatry), Dept. of Psychiatry, Columbia University 2015-2018
The Gallo Lab studies the neural basis of motivated behavior. Energizing of behavior in pursuit of a goal is essential for an animal’s survival. Whether an animal engages in goal-directed behavior depends on intricate cost-benefit calculations that weigh reward value, effort, time, and risk, and is subject to influence of environmental cues, internal states, and previous experience. These motivational processes are mediated by different brain regions, but our understanding of the neuronal populations, and the circuitry that enables their crosstalk, is still limited. Perturbations in these neural circuits have been implicated in the motivational dysfunction observed in various disorders including substance abuse, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), pathological obesity, and schizophrenia.
Our main interest is to dissect the role of distinct neuronal populations and neural circuits of the basal ganglia in reward and motivated behavior. To achieve this goal, we use a multidisciplinary approach, taking advantage of genetic and viral tools in mice, electrophysiology, behavioral assays, neuroanatomical and biochemical analyses, and techniques to manipulate and monitor neuronal activity in vitro and in vivo such as optogenetics, pharmacogenetics and calcium imaging.
Currently, the focus of my laboratory is to determine the contribution of cholinergic neurons in the basal ganglia to motivated behavior and to the shaping of striatal circuits. Some of the ongoing questions driving our research are: How does dopamine and its receptors alter cholinergic neuron firing? What is the significance of altered firing to behaviors that involve both natural and drug rewards? Are alterations in intracellular signaling pathways involved? What are the most prominent functional connections to these neurons that affect their function? How do these neurons in turn influence the function of other cells? By studying the neuroanatomical and functional diversity of specific neurons mediating reward, we hope to provide new insight into the motivational dysfunction seen in these disorders.
Cavallaro J**, Yeisley J**, Akdoǧan B, Floeder J, Balsam PD, Gallo EF. Dopamine D2 receptors in nucleus accumbens cholinergic interneurons increase impulsive choice. bioRxiv 2023.01.20.524596; doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2023.01.20.524596 **Both authors contributed equally to this work.
Gallo EF*, Greenwald J, Yeisley J, Teboul E, Martyniuk KM, Villarin JM, Li Y, Javitch JA, Balsam PD, Kellendonk C*. Dopamine D2 receptors modulate the cholinergic pause and inhibitory learning. Mol. Psychiatry. 2022 27(3):1502-1514. *Corresponding authors. Epub 2021 Nov 17. PMID: 34789847; PMCID: PMC9106808.
Donthamsetti P.*, Gallo E.F.*, Buck D.C., Stahl E.L., Zhu Y., Lane R.L., Bohn L.M., Neve K.A., Kellendonk C., Javitch J.A. Arrestin recruitment to dopamine D2 receptor mediates locomotion but not incentive motivation Mol. Psychiatry (in press) 2018. *Both authors contributed equally to this work.
Gallo EF, Meszaros J, Sherman JD, Chohan MO, Teboul E, Choi CS, Moore H, Javitch JA, Kellendonk C. Dopamine D2 receptors on ventral striatal projection neurons increase motivation by decreasing inhibitory transmission to the ventral pallidum. Nature Communications. 2018; 9(1): 1086.
Gallo EF, Salling M, Feng B, Moron JA, Harrison NL, Javitch J, Kellendonk C. Upregulation of Dopamine D2 Receptors in the Nucleus Accumbens Indirect Pathway Increases Locomotion but does not Reduce Alcohol Consumption. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2015; 40(7):1609-18.
Anrather J, Gallo EF, Kawano T, Orio M, Abe T, Gooden C, Zhou P, Iadecola C. Purinergic signaling induces cyclooxygenase-1-dependent prostanoid synthesis in microglia: Roles in the outcome of excitotoxic brain injury. Public Library of Science ONE. 2011. 6(10): e25916.
Gallo EF, Iadecola C. Neuronal nitric oxide contributes to neuroplasticity-associated gene expression through cGMP, protein kinase G, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase. Journal of Neuroscience. 2011; 31(19):6947-6955
Zhou P, Qian L, Gallo EF, Deeb RS, Anrather J, Gross SS, Iadecola C. The scavenger receptor CD36 contributes to the neurotoxicity of bone marrow-derived monocytes through peroxynitrite production. Neurobiology of Disease. 2011; 42(3):292-299.
Tampellini D, Rahman N, Gallo EF, Huang Z, Dumont M, Capetillo-Zarate E, Ma T, Zheng R, Lu B, Nanus DM, Lin MT, Gouras GK. Synaptic activity reduces intraneuronal Abeta, promotes APP transport to synapses, and protects against Abeta-related synaptic alterations. Journal of Neuroscience. 2009; 29(31):9704-9713.
Girouard H, Wang G, Gallo EF, Anrather J, Zhou P, Pickel VM, Iadecola C. NMDA receptor activation increases free radical production through nitric oxide and NOX2. Journal of Neuroscience. 2009; 29(8):2545-2552.
Park L, Gallo EF, Anrather J, Wang G, Norris EH, Paul J, Strickland S and Iadecola C: Key role of tissue plasminogen activator in neurovascular coupling. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA. 2008; 105:1073-1078.
Kunz A, Park L, Abe T, Gallo EF, Anrather J, Zhou P and Iadecola C: Neurovascular protection by ischemic tolerance: role of nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species. Journal of Neuroscience. 2007; 27:7083-7093.
Shen G, Saunée NA, Williams SR, Gallo EF, Schluchter WM and Bryant DA: Identification and characterization of a new class of bilin lyase: the cpcT gene encodes a bilin lyase responsible for attachment of phycocyanobilin to Cys-153 on the beta subunit of phycocyanin in Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 2006; 281:17768-17778.
Reviews and Editorials
Simpson EH, Gallo EF, Balsam PD, Javitch JA, Kellendonk C. How changes in dopamine D2 receptor levels alter striatal circuit function and motivation. Mol Psychiatry. 2022. 27(1): 436-444. doi: 10.1038/s41380-021-01253-4. Epub 2021 Aug 12. PMID: 34385603. PMCID: PMC8837728.
Gallo EF. Disentangling the diverse roles of dopamine D2 receptors in striatal function and behavior. Neurochemistry International. 2019; 125:35-46. PMID: 30716356; PMCID: PMC6450565.
Gallo EF and Posner J. Moving towards causality in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: overview of neural and genetic mechanisms. The Lancet Psychiatry. 2016; 3(6):555-67.
Iadecola C, Kahles T, Gallo EF, Anrather J. Neurovascular protection by ischemic tolerance: Role of nitric oxide. Journal of Physiology. 2011;589 (17):4137-45.
Gallo EF, Iadecola C. Balancing life and death in the ischemic brain: SIK and TORC weigh in. Neuron. 2011; 69(1):3-6.