Warren W. Tryon

2019 / In Press

Dr. Warren Tryon

Professor Emeritus
Department of Psychology

Curriculum Vitae

Email: [email protected]

I began teaching at Fordham University in September of 1970. As of May 2015 I am fully retired after 45 years of teaching. I wrote Cognitive Neuroscience and Psychotherapy: Network Principles for a Unified Theory to improve our understanding of how cognition and affect interact to produce behavior. The chapter supplements and blogs listed below show that I continue to think and write about the topics covered in my book.

This web page contains a color version of Figure 5.6 that appears on page 277 of my book.

I represent important points and themes of my book in 77 blogs that are posted on the SciTechConnect Elsevier site and automatically reposted on Facebook and Twitter.

Cognitive Neuroscience and Psychotherapy

Each blog indicates that it can be found on this site.
I provide the link to my Elsevier blog archive for accuracy and currency.

I appreciate your interest in my work and thank you for visiting this page.


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Table of Contents

Chapter Supplements

Sigmund Freud -Neural Network Explanation as Psychological Intervention a color version of Figure 5.6 Chapter 1
Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5
Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Chapter 8 Chapter 9
Chapter 10 Chapter 11 Chapter 12 Chapter 13: Final Assessment
    • 1966 BA Ohio Northern University, Ada, Ohio
    • 1969 MA Kent State University, Kent, Ohio
      Thesis: Personal Reaction Experiment
    • 1970 PhD Kent State University, Kent, Ohio
      Major: Clinical Psychology
      Dissertation: A Comparison of Two Models of Behavior Disorder: Social Adaptation Versus Anxiety-Pathology.
      Mentor: V. Edwin Bixenstine, PhD
  • Yip, T., MiCheon, Y., Wang, Y., Cham, H., Tryon, W. W., & El-Sheikh, M. (2019). Racial Disparities in Sleep: Associations with Discrimination Among Ethnic/ Racial Minority Adolescents. Child Development, doi:10.1111/cdev.13234

    Tryon, W. W. (2018). Unconscious processing: Comment on Hornsey and Fielding (2017). American Psychologist, 73, 685-686. doi: 10.1037/amp0000311

    Tryon, W. W. (2018). Mediators and Mechanisms. Clinical Psychological Science, 2, 344-365. doi: 10.1177/2167702618765791


    McKay, D., Tryon, W.W. (2017). Behavior Therapy: Theoretical Bases. In Reference Module in Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Psychology, Elsevier, ISBN 9780128093245

    Tryon, W. W. (2017). Basing clinical practice on unified psychological science: Comment on Melchert (2016), American Psychologist, 72, 399-400. doi 10.1037/amp0000133

    Tryon, W. W., Patelis, T., Chajewski, M., & Lewis, C. (2017). Theory construction and data analysis. Theory and Psychology, 27, 126-134. doi 10.1177/0959354316684043

    Tryon, W.W., Hoffman, J., & McKay, D. (2017). Neural networks as explanatory frameworks of psychopathology and its treatment. In D. McKay, J.S. Abramowitz, & E. Storch (Eds.), Treatments for Psychological Problems and Syndromes (pp. 452-479). Chichester, UK: Wiley.

    Tryon, W. W. (2017). Integrative psychology. SEPI Newsletter, 3(2), May. www.sepiweb.org/newsletter. http://c.ymcdn.com/sites/www.sepiweb.org/resource/resmgr/Integrative_Therapist/Integrative_Therapist-v3-2.pdf


    Tryon, W. W. (2016). Replication is about effect size: Comment on Maxwell, Lau, and Howard (2015). American Psychologist, 71, 236-237. doi 10.1037/a0040191

    Tryon, W. W. (2016) Under-Reliance on Mechanistic Models: Comment on Ferguson (2015). American Psychologist. doi 10.1037/a0039405

    Tryon, W. W. (2016). Transtheoretic transdiagnostic psychotherapy. Journal of Psychotherapy Integration, 26, 273-287. doi /10.1037/a0040041

    Tryon, W. W. (2016). Integrating psychology and neuroscience. Comment on Schwartz, Lilienfeld et al. (2016). American Psychologist, 71, 896-897. doi 10.1037/amp0000031

    Tryon, W. W. (2016). Psychotherapy integration via theoretical unification. International Journal of Integrative Psychotherapy, 7, 1-26.


    Tryon, W. W. (2015). Correcting Three Mistakes: A Response to the Review of Cognitive Neuroscience and Psychotherapy: Network Principles for a Unified Theory. PsycCRITIQUES June 1, 2015, Vol. 60, No. 22, Article 9. doi 10.1037/a0039235


    Tryon, W. W. (2014). Cognitive neuroscience and psychotherapy: Network principles for a unified theory. New York: Elsevier/Academic Press.


    Tryon, W. W. (2012). A Connectionist Network Approach to Psychological Science: Core and Corollary Principles. Review of General Psychology, 16 (3), 305-317.

    Tryon, W. W. (2012). Emergence vs. reductionism. American Psychologist, 67, 806-807. Doi 10.1037/a0030542


    Misurell, J., Springer, C., & Tryon, W. W. (2011). Game-based CBT (GB-CBT) group program for children who have experienced sexual abuse: A preliminary investigation. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, 20, 14-36.

    Tryon, W. W. (2011). Actigraphy: The ambulatory measurement of physical activity. In P. A. Luiselli & D. D. Reed (Eds.). Behavioral sport psychology: Evidence-based approaches to performance enhancement. New York: Springer.

    Tryon, W. W., & Tryon, G. S. (2011). No ownership of common factors. American Psychologist, 66, 151-152.


    Tryon, W. W. (2010). Professional Identity Based on Learning. the Behavior Therapist, 33, 9.

    Tryon, W. W. (2010). Learning as Core of Psychological Science and Clinical Practice. the Behavior Therapist,33, 10- 11.

    Tryon, W. W. (2010). Competencies in adult clinical psychology. In J. C. Thomas and M. Hersen (Eds.). Handbook of clinical psychology competencies (Vol. 1, pp. 1 - 42). New York: Springer.

    Tryon, W. W. (2010). Behavioral observation. In. I. Weiner and E. Craighead (Eds.). Corsini’s Encyclopedia of psychology (4th ed.). New York: Wiley.


    Tryon, W. W. (2009). Missing mechanism information. American Psychologist, 64,273-274. doi 10.1037/a0015348

    Tryon, W. W. (2009). Darwin’s eclipse: Function vs. mechanism. American Psychologist, 64, 622-623.

    Tryon, W. W. (2009). Sensitivity of parent reports in the MTA. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 48, 1124.

    Tryon, W. W. (2009). Cognitive processes in cognitive and pharmacological therapies. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 33, 570-584.

    Tryon, W. W. (2009). Empirical applications of actigraphy for classification of anxiety. In D. McKay J. Abramowitz, S. Taylor, & G. J. G. Asmundson (Eds.). Current perspectives on the anxiety disorders: Implications for DSM-V and beyond (pp. 181 – 218). New York: Springer.

    Tryon, W. W. & McKay, D. (2009). Memory modification as an outcome variable in anxiety disorder treatment. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 23, 546-556.

    Tryon, W. W., & Lewis, C. (2009). Evaluating independent proportions for statistical difference, equivalence, indeterminacy, and trivial difference using inferential confidence intervals. Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics, 34(2), 171-189. DOI: 10.3102/1076998609332753

    Leftwich, M. & Tryon, W. W. (2009). Managing multiple roles: How to work as a clinician and still pursue research and teaching. In S. F. Davis, P. J. Giordano, & C. A. Licht (Eds.). Your career in psychology: Putting your graduate degree to work (pp. 187-199). New York: Wiley-Blackwell.

    Licht, C. A., & Tryon, W. W. (2009). Are children diagnosed with the combined form of ADHD pervasively hyperactive? Behavior Modification, 33, 655-681.

    Solanto, M. V., Pope-Boyd, S. A., Tryon, W. W., & Stepak, B. (2009). Social functioning in predominantly inattentive and combined subtypes of children with ADHD. Journal of Attention Disorders, 13,27-35.


    Tryon, W. W. (2008). Statistical equivalence tests. In D. McKay (Ed.). Handbook of methods in clinical and abnormal psychology (pp. 309-316). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

    Tryon W. W. (2008). History and theoretical foundations. In M. Hersen & A. M. Gross (2008) Handbook of clinical psychology, Volume 1 (pp. 3-37): Adults. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

    Tryon, W. W. (2008). What ever happened to symptom substitution. Clinical Psychology Review, 28, 963-968.

    Tryon, W. W., & Misurell, J. R. (2008). Dissonance Induction and Reduction: A Possible Principle and Connectionist Mechanism for Why Therapies are Effective. Clinical Psychology Review, 28, 1297-1309. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2008.06.003

    Tryon, W. W., & Lewis, C. (2008). An Inferential Confidence Interval Method of Establishing Statistical Equivalence That Corrects Tryon’s (2001) Reduction Factor. Psychological Methods, 13, 272-277.

    Tryon, W. W. (2008) Methods of measuring human activity. Journal of Behavioral Analysis in Health, Sports, Fitness and Medicine, 1, 58-71.


    Corby, B. J., & Tryon, W. W. (2006). Validating a new method for quantifying traits: The systematic computer- administered visual analog. Journal of Research in Personality, 40, 285-312.

    Fertuck, E. A., Marsano-Jozefowicz, S., Stanley, B., Tryon, W. W., Oquendo, M., Mann, J. J., & Keilp. J. G. (2006). The impact of borderline personality disorder and anxiety on neuropsychological performance in major depression. Journal of Personality Disorder, 20,55-70.

    Muench, F. J., Tryon, W. W., Travaglini, L. & Morgenstern, J. (2006). Maintaining motivation using audio review. Journal of Substance Use, 11(3), 191-204.

    Tryon, W. W. (2006). Activity Measurement. In M. Hersen (Ed.). Clinician’s handbook of adult behavioral assessment (pp. 85-120). Boston: Elsevier.

    Tryon, W. W., Tryon, G. S., Kazlausky, T., Gruen, W., & Swanson, J. M. (2006). Reducing hyperactivity with a feedback actigraph: Initial findings. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 11, 607-617.


    Baerwald, J. P., Tryon, W. W., & Sanford, J. (2005). Bimodal response sensitivity and bias in a test of sustained attention contrasting patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder to normal comparison group. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 20, 17-32.

    Gorlyn, M., Keilp, J. G., Tryon, W. W., & Mann, J. J. (2005). Performance test correlates of component factors of impulsivity. Personality and Individual Differences, 38, 1549-1559.

    Tryon, W. W. (2005). Behavior theory. In R. Lerner and C. Fisher (Eds.) Applied developmental science encyclopedia (pp. 141-144). New Beverly Hills: CA: Sage.

    Tryon, W. W. (2005). Possible mechanisms for why desensitization and exposure therapy work. Clinical Psychology Review, 25, 67-95.

    Tryon, W. W. (2005, June 6). Advances in actigraphy [Online].

    Tryon, W. W. (2005). The reliability and validity of two ambulatory monitoring actigraphs. Behavior Research Methods Instruments & Computers, 37, 492-497.

    Tryon, W. W. (2005). Motor activity and behavioral assessment. In M. Hersen (Ed.). Encyclopedia of behavior modification and cognitive behavior therapy: Volume I, Adult clinical applications(pp 389-392).Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications

    Tryon, W. W. (2005). Operant conditioning (Adults). In M. Hersen (Ed.). Encyclopedia of behavior modification and therapy: Volume I, Adult clinical applications (pp 403-407).Thousand Oaks, CA: SagePublications.


    Coffield, T. G., & Tryon, W. W. (2004). Construct validation of actigraphic sleep measures in hospitalized depressed patients. Behavioral Sleep Medicine, 2, 24-40.

    Tryon, W. W. (2004). Issues of validity in actigraphic sleep assessment. Sleep, 27, 158-165.

    Tryon, W. W. Jason, L., Frankenberry, E., Torres-Harding, S. (2004). Chronic fatigue syndrome Impairs circadian rhythm of activity level. Physiology & Behavior, 82, 849-853.

    Tryon, W. W. (2005). Behavior therapy theory. In M. Hersen (Ed.). Encyclopedia of behavior modification and therapy: Volume I, Adult clinical applications(pp 56-60). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.


    Meyerson, P., & Tryon, W. W. (2003). Validating Internet research: A test of the psychometric equivalence of Internet and in-person samples. Behavior Research Methods Instruments & Computers, 35, 614-620.


    Hersen, M., Sledge, W. (Editors-in-Chief), Gross, A. M., Kay, J., Rounsaville, B., & Tryon, W. W. (Associate Editors) (2002). Encyclopedia of Psychotherapy (Vols 1 & 2). New York: Academic Press.

    McKay, D., & Tryon, W. W. (2002). Behavioral therapy: Theoretical Bases. In M. Hersen & W. Sledge (Eds.). The Encyclopedia of Psychotherapy. New York: Academic Press.

    Tryon, W. W. (2002). Activity level and DSM-IV. In S. Turner & M. Hersen (Eds.). Adult psychopathology and diagnosis (4th. ed., pp. 547-577). NY: Wiley.

    Tryon, W. W. (2002). Comments on Kelly, Forsyth, and Karekla’s “Brains, Computer Games, and Behavior: What do they have to do with progress in Behavior Therapy?”. The Behavior Therapist, 25, 84-87.

    Tryon, W. W. (2002). Contributions of connectionism to postmodern psychology. American Psychologist, 57, 455-456.

    Tryon, W. W. (2002). Expanding the explanatory base of behavior analysis via modern connectionism: Selectionism as a common explanatory core. The Behavior Analyst Today. 3, 104-118. [http://www.behavior-analyst-online.org/BAT/BAT31.pdf]

    Tryon, W. W. (2002). Network models contribute to cognitive and social neuroscience. American Psychologist, 57, 728.

    Tryon, W. W. (2002). Neural network learning theory: Unifying radical behaviorism and cognitive neuroscience. The Behavior Therapist, 25, 53-57.

    Tryon, W. W. (2002). Observation in clinical settings. In R. Fernández-Ballesteros (Ed.). Encyclopedia of psychological assessment. London: Sage Publications.

    Tryon, W. W., & Bernstein, D. (2002). Understanding measurement. In J. C. Thomas and M. Hersen (Eds.). Understanding Research in Clinical and Counseling Psychology: A textbook (pp. 27-68). Mahwah, NJ: Earlbaum.


    Baerwald, J. P., Tryon, W. W., & Sandford, J. (2001). Modal attention asymmetry in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Neuropsychology, 15, 535-543.

    Casey, M., & Tryon, W. W. (2001). Validating a Double Press Method for Computer Administration of Personality Inventory Items. Psychological Assessment, 13, 521-530.

    Pollak, C. P., Tryon, W. W., Nagaraja, H., Dzwonczyk, R. (2001). How well does wrist actigraphy identify states of sleep and wakefulness? Sleep Research, 24, 957-965.

    Tryon, W. W. (2001). Evaluating statistical difference, equivalence, and indeterminacy using inferential confidence intervals: An integrated alternative method of conducting null hypothesis statistical tests. Psychological Methods, 6, 371-386.


    Tryon, W. W. (2000). Behavior therapy as applied learning theory. the Behavior Therapist, 23, 131-134.

    Tryon, W. W. (2000). Neural network learning theory integrates behavior therapy and behavior genetics. The Behavior Therapist, 23, 3-4, 6, 8-9, 19-20, 22.


    Jason, L. A., King, C. P., Frankenberry, E. L., Jordan, K. M., Tryon, W. W., Rademaker, A. W., & Huang, C. F. (1999). Chronic fatigue syndrome: Assessing symptoms and activity level. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 55, 411-424.

    Jason, L. A., Tryon, W. W., Taylor, R. R., King, C. P., Frankenberry, E. L., & Jordan, K. M. (1999). Monitoring and assessing symptoms of chronic fatigue syndrome: Use of time series regression. Psychological Reports, 85, 121-130.

    Trudel, T. M., Tryon, W. W., & Purdum, C. M. (1999). Awareness of disability and long-term outcome after traumatic brain injury. Rehabilitation Psychology, 43, 267-281.

    Tryon, W. W. (1999). Behavioral Diagnosis versus the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual. the Behavior Therapist, 22, 3-4, 19.

    Tryon, W. W. (1999). Behavioral Model. In M. Hersen & V. B. Van Hasselt (1999). Advanced Abnormal Psychology (pp. 93-123). NY: Plenum Press.

    Tryon, W. W. (1999). A bidirectional associative memory explanationof posttraumatic stress disorder. Clinical Psychology Review, 19, 789-818.

    Tryon, W. W. (1999). Measurement units and theory construction: A reply to Loker’s theory in psychology. Journal of Mind and Behavior, 20, 295-299.


    Medalia, A., Aluma, M., Tryon, W., & Merriam, A. E. (1998). The effectiveness of attention training in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 24, 147-152.

    Tryon, W. W. (1998). Behavioral observation. In M. Hersen & A. S. Bellack (Eds.). Behavioral assessment: A practical handbook (4th ed., pp. 79-103). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

    Tryon, W. W. (1998). Identifying targets for treatment. In M. Hersen and V. B. Van Hasselt (Eds.). Basic interviewing: A practical guide for counselors and clinicians (pp. 217-233). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

    Tryon, W. W. (1998). The inscrutable null hypothesis. American Psychologist, 53, 796.

    Tryon, W. W. (1998). A neural network explanation of posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 12, 373-385.

    Tryon, W. W. (1998). Physical activity. In M. Hersen & B. B. Van Hasselt (Eds.). Handbook of clinical geropsychology (pp. 523-556). NY: Plenum Press.


    Jason, L. A., Tryon, W. W., Frankenberry, E., & King, C. (1997). Chronic fatigue Syndrome: The relationships of self-ratings and actigraphy. Psychological Reports, 81, 1223-1226.

    King, C. P., Jason, L. A., Frankenberry, E. L., Jordan, K. M., & Tryon, W. W. (1997). Managing chronic fatigue syndrome through behavioral monitoring of energy levels and fatigue: A case study demonstration of the envelope theory. The CFIDS Chronicle, Fall, 10-14.

    Tryon, W. W. (1997). Introduction to the bidirectional associative memory model: Implications for psychopathology, treatment, and research. In G. E. Stelmach & P. A. Vroon (Series Ed.) & B. Matthews (Vol. Ed.), Advances in psychology: Vol 124. Cognitive science perspectives on personality and emotion (pp. 65-122). Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier Science.

    Tryon, W. W. (1997). Motor activity and DSM-IV. In S. Turner & M. Hersen (Eds.). Adult psychopathology and diagnosis (3rd. ed., pp. 547-577). NY: Wiley.

    Tryon, W. W. (1997). Téchnicas de registro de la actividat motora (Measurement of human activity). In Buela-Casal, G. et al. (Eds.) Handbook of Psychological Assessment (pp. 369-384). Siglo XXI de Espana Editores, Madrid.


    Harner, S., & Tryon, W. W. (1996). Therapeutic effects of Shamanism. Shamanism, 9, 27-28.

    Harner, S., & Tryon, W. W. (1996). Psychological and immunological responses to Shamanic journeying with drumming. Shaman, 4, 89-97.

    Pinto, L. P., & Tryon, W. W. (1996). Activity measurements support dimensional assessment. Behavior Modification, 20, 243-258.

    Tryon, W. W. (1996). Yes -- Neural network learning theory can resolve the behavioral-cognitive controversy. the Behavior Therapist, 19, 70, 72-73.

    Tryon, W. W. (1996). Instrument driven theory. Journal of Mind and Behavior, 17, 21-30.

    Tryon, W. W. (1996). Measurement units and theory construction. Journal of Mind and Behavior, 17, 213-227.

    Tryon, W. W. (1996). Nocturnal activity and sleep assessment. Clinical Psychology Review, 16, 197-213.

    Tryon, W. W. (1996). Observing contingencies: Taxonomy and methods. Clinical Psychology Review, 16, 215-230.

    Tryon, W. W., Orr, D. A., & Blumenfield, M. (1996). Psychometric equivalency of an electronic visual-analog (EVA), a conventional visual-analog, and a Likert rating scale. Methods in Psychiatric Research, 6, 163-167.

    Tryon, W. W., & Williams, R. (1996). Fully proportional actigraphy: A new instrument. Behavior Research Methods Instruments & Computers, 28, 392-403.


    Barkley, T. J., & Tryon, W. W. (1995). Psychomotor Retardation Found in College Students Seeking Counseling. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 33, 977-984.

    Prueitt, P., Levine, D., Leven, S., Tryon, W. W., & Abraham, F. (1995). Introduction to artificial neural networks. In A. Gilgen and F. Abraham (Eds.), Chaos theory in psychology (pp. 195-204). Westport, CT: Praeger.

    Tryon, W. W. (1995). Neural networks for behavior therapists: What they are and why they are important. Behavior Therapy, 26, 295-318.

    Tryon, W. W. (1995). Resolving the cognitive behavioral controversy. the Behavior Therapist, 18, 83-86.

    Tryon, W. W. (1995). Synthesizing animal and human research via neural network learning theory. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 26, 303-312.

    Tryon, W. W. (1995). Synthesizing psychological schisms through connectionism. In A. Gilgen and F. Abraham (Eds.), Chaos theory in psychology (pp. 247-263). Westport, CT: Praeger.


    Futterman, C. S., & Tryon, W. W. (1994). Psychomotor retardation found in depressed outpatient women. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 25, 41-48.

    Tryon, W. W. (1994). Expectation. In V. S. Vamachandran (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Human Behavior, 2, 313-317.

    Tryon, W. W. (1994). Synthesis not complementarity. American Psychologist, 49, 892-893.

    Tryon, W. W., & Pinto, L. P. (1994). Comparing activity measurements and ratings. Behavior Modification, 18, 251-261.


    DeCarlo, L. T., & Tryon, W. W. (1993). Estimating and testing autocorrelation with small samples: A comparison of the C-statistic to a modified estimator. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 31, 781-788.

    Tryon, W. W. (1993). Neural Networks: I. Theoretical Unification Through Connectionism. Clinical Psychology Review, 13, 341-352.

    Tryon, W. W. (1993). Neural Networks: II. Unified Learning Theory and Behavioral Psychotherapy. Clinical Psychology Review, 13, 353-371.

    Tryon, W. W. (1993). The role of motor excess and instrumented activity measurement in Attention-deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Behavior Modification, 17, 371-406.

    Tryon, W. W. (1993). Using technology in therapy -- Behavioral and otherwise. In B. Schlosser & K. L. Moreland, et al. (Eds.). Taming technology: A resource directory for practitioners. Washington DC: APA Division of Independent Practice.

    Tryon, W. W., & Mulloy, J. M. (1993). Further validation of computer-assessed response time to emotionally evocative stimuli. Journal of Personality Assessment, 61, 231-236.


    Harner, S., & Tryon, W. (1992). Psychoimmunological effects of shamanic drumming. In M. Hoppal and J. Pentikainen (Eds.), Northern religions and shamanism. Helsinki and Budapest: Etnologica Uralica, Finnish Literature Society.

    Malgady, R., Rogler, L. H., & Tryon, W. W. (1992). Issues of validity in the Diagnostic Interview Schedule. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 26, 59-67.

    Rogler, L. H., Malgady, R. & Tryon, W. W. (1992). Evaluation of mental health issues of memory in the Diagnostic Interview Schedule. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 180, 215-222.

    Tryon, W. W., Goldberg, J. L., & Morrison, D. F. (1992). Activity decreases as percent overweight increases. International Journal of Obesity, 16, 591-595.


    Caruso, L. S., LaRocca, N. G., Tryon, W., Robbins, K., Foley, F. W., & Smith, C. R. (1991). Activity monitoring of fatigued and non-fatigued persons with multiple sclerosis. Sleep, 20, 368.

    Tryon, W. W. (1991). Activity measurement in psychology and medicine. New York: Plenum.

    Tryon, W. W. (1991). Further support for uncertainty reduction as valid explanation. Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology, 11, 106-110.

    Tryon, W. W. (1991). Motoric Assessment and DSM-III-R (pp. 413-440). In M. Hersen, & S. M. Turner (Eds.), Adult Psychopathology and Diagnosis, New York: Wiley.

    Tryon, W. W. (1991). Uncertainty reduction as valid explanation. Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology, 11, 91-98.

    Tryon, W. W., Pinto, L. P., & Morrison, D. F. (1991). Reliability assessment of pedometer activity measurements. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 13, 27-44.


    Fisher, C. B. & Tryon, W. W. (1990). Ethics in Applied Developmental Psychology: Emerging issues in an emerging field, Norwood, NJ: Ablex.

    Tryon, W. W. (1990). Why Paradigmatic Behaviorism should be retitled Psychological Behaviorism. The Behavior Therapist, 13, 127-128.


    Cicero, S. B., & Tryon, W. W. (1989). Classical conditioning of meaning II: A replication and triplet associative extension. Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 20, 197-202.

    Fitz, D., & Tryon, W. W. (1989). Attrition and augmentation biases in time series analysis: Evaluation of clinical programs. Evaluation and Program Planning, 12, 259-270.

    Hore, A. P., & Tryon, W. W. (1989). Study of the similar structure hypothesis in mentally retarded adults and nonretarded children of comparable mental age. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 94, 182-188.

    Tryon, W. W. (1989). Behavioral assessment and psychiatric diagnosis (pp. 35-56). In M. Hersen (Ed.). Innovations in Child Behavior Therapy, New York: Springer.

    Tryon, W. W., & Cicero, S. B. (1989). Classical Conditioning of meaning I: A replication and higher order extension. Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 20, 137-142.


    Fisher, C. B., & Tryon, W. W. (1988). Ethical issues in the research and practice of applied developmental psychology. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 9, 27-39.


    Cozzi, L., Tryon, W. W., & Sedlacek, K. (1987). The effectiveness of biofeedback assisted relaxation in modifying sickle cell crises. Biofeedback and Self-Regulation, 12, 51-61.

    Tryon, W. W. (1987). Accelerometric assessment of tardive dyskinesia. The Clinical Neuropsychologist. (Abstract).

    Tryon, W. W. (1987). Activity as a function of body weight. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 46, 451-455.

    Tryon, W. W., & Pologe, B. (1987). Accelerometric assessment of tardive dyskinesia. American Journal of Psychiatry, 144, 1548-1587.

    Tryon, G. S., & Tryon, W. W. (1987). Factors associated with clinical practicum trainees' engagement of clients in counseling. Professional Psychology, 17, 586-589.


    Green, L. W., Tryon, W. W., Marks, B., & Huryn, J. (1986). Periodontal disease as a function of life stress. Journal of Human Stress, 12, 32-36.

    Nardone, M. J., Tryon, W. W., & O'Connor, K. (1986). The effectiveness and generalization of a cognitive-behavioral group home treatment to reduce Impulsive/Aggressive behavior for boys in a residential setting. Behavioral Residential Treatment, 1, 93-103.

    Tryon, W. W. (1986). The convergence of Cognitive Behaviorism and Ego-Psychology. Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology, 6, 90-96.

    Tryon, W. W. (1986). Motor activity measurements and DSM-III. In M. Hersen, R. M. Eisler, and P. Miller (Eds.). Progress in Behavior Modification, 20, 35-66.


    Donohue, G. B., & Tryon, W. W. (1985). A functional analysis of social reinforcement in vicarious verbal conditioning. Pavlovian Journal of Biological Science, 20, 140-148.

    Falk, J. R., Halmi, K. A., & Tryon, W. W. (1985). Activity measures in anorexia nervosa. Archives of General Psychiatry, 42, 811-814.

    Tryon, W. W. (Ed.). (1985). Behavioral assessment in behavioral medicine. New York: Springer.

    Tryon, W. W. (1985). Human activity: A review of quantitative findings. In W. W. Tryon (Ed.). Behavior assessment in behavioral medicine (pp. 257-300). New York: Springer.

    Tryon, W. W. (1985). The measurement of human activity. In W. W. Tryon (Ed.). Behavioral assessment in behavioral medicine (pp. 200-256). New York: Springer.

    Tryon, W. W. (1985). "A Simplified time-series analysis for evaluating treatment interventions": A rejoinder to Blumberg. Applied Behavior Analysis, 17, 543-544.

    Tryon, W. W. (1985). Suggestions regarding future research on the effects of noncontingent consequences. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 3, 244-247.

    Tryon, W. W., & Briones, R. (1985). Higher-order semantic counterconditioning of Filipino women's evaluations of heterosexual behaviors. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 16, 125-131.


    Tryon, W. W. (1984). Measuring activity using actometers: A methodological study. Journal of Behavioral Assessment, 6, 147-153.

    Tryon, W. W. (1984). Principles and methods of mechanically measuring motor activity. Behavioral Assessment, 6, 129-141.


    Harris, F. A., & Tryon, W. W. (1983). Some necessary and sufficient conditions for the experimental induction of learned helplessness. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 1, 15-26.

    Pfadt, A., & Tryon, W. W. (1983). Issues in the selection and use of mechanical transducers to directly measure motor activity in clinical settings. Applied Research in Mental Retardation, 4, 251-270.

    Tryon, W. W. (1983). Digital filters in behavioral research. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 29, 185-190.

    Tryon, W. W. (1983). Further implications of Herrnstein's law of effect. American Psychologist, 38, 613-614.


    Palladino, J. J., Tryon, W. W., Johnson, R., Motiff, J. P., Rich, M. L., & Zweig, J. T. (1982). Comments on "Biofeedback in the Undergraduate Curriculum" from a more critical pedagogical perspective. Teaching of Psychology, 9, 224-227.

    Spiegel, D., Tryon, W. W., Frischholz, E. J., & Spiegel, H. H. (1982). Hilgard's illusion. Archives of General Psychiatry, 39, 972-973.

    Tryon, W. W. (1982). Developmental equations for postural tremor. Science, 215, 300-301.

    Tryon, W. W. (1982). Reinforcement history as probable basis for the relationship between self-percepts of efficacy and response to treatment. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 13, 201-202.

    Tryon, W. W. (1982). A simplified time series analysis for evaluating treatment interventions. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 15, 423-429.

    Tryon, G. S., & Tryon, W. W. (1982). Issues in the lives of dual career couples. Clinical Psychology Review, 2, 49-65.


    Frischholz, E. J., Spiegel, H., Tryon, W. W., & Fisher, S. (1981). The relationship between the Hypnotic Induction Profile and the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale: Form C: Revisited. The American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 24, 98-105.

    Palladino, J. J., Tryon, W. W., Johnson, R., Motiff, J. P., Rich, M. L. & Zweig, J. T. (1981). Biofeedback in the undergraduate curriculum. Teaching of Psychology, 8, 203-208.

    Tryon, W. W. (1981). A methodological critique of Bandura's self-efficacy theory of behavior change. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 12, 113-114.

    Tryon, W. W. (1981). The practice of clinical behaviorism: An overview. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 12, 197-202.


    Rose, Y., & Tryon, W. W. (1979). Judgements of assertive behavior as a function of speech loudness, latency, content, gestures, inflection, and sex. Behavior Modification, 3, 112-123.

    Tryon, W. W. (1979). The test-trait fallacy. American Psychologist, 34, 402-406.

    O'Rourke, T. M., Tryon, W. W., & Raps, C. S. (1980). Learned helplessness, depression, and positive reinforcement. Cognitive Theory and Research, 4, 201-209.

    Frischholz, E. F., Tryon, W. W., Fisher, S., Maruffi, B. L., Vellios, A. T., & Spiegel, H. (1980). The relationship between the Hypnotic Induction Profile and the Stanford Hypnotic Suceptibility Scale: Form C: A replication. The American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 22, 185-196.

    Frischholz, E. J., & Tryon, W. W. (1980). Hypnotizability in relation to the ability to learn thermal biofeedback. The American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 23, 53-56.

    Tryon, W. W., Ferster, C. B., Franks, C. M., Kazdin, A. E., Levis, D. J., & Tryon, G. S. (1980). On the role of behaviorism in clinical psychology. Pavlovian Journal of Biological Science, 15, 12-20.


    Price, K. P., Tryon, W. W., & Raps, C. S. (1978). Learned helplessness and depression in a clinical population: A test of two behavioral hypotheses. Abnormal Psychology, 87, 113-121.

    Tryon, W. W. (1978). An operant explanation of Mowrer's neurotic paradox. Behaviorism, 6, 203-211.


    Aranow, E., Reznikoff, M., Tryon, W. W., & Rauchway, A. (1977). On the construct validity of the concept of interpersonal distance. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 45, 550.

    Tryon, W. W. (1977). Another example of a paradigm clash: A reply to Bixenstein's "criticisms." American Psychologist, 32, 575-576.

    Tryon, W. W. (1977). Psychophysical scaling and hierarchy construction. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 8, 53-56.

    Tryon, W. W., Vaughter, R. M., & Ginorio, A. B. (1977). Smoking behavior as a function of social cues and sex: a naturalistic study. Sex Roles, 3, 337-344.


    Tryon, W. W. (1976). Behavior modification and the law. Professional Psychology, 7, 468-474.

    Tryon, W. W. (1976). Models of behavior disorder: A formal analysis based on Woods' taxonomy of instrumental conditioning. American Psychologist, 31, 509-518.

    Tryon, W. W. (1976). A system of behavioral diagnosis. Professional Psychology, 7, 495-506.

    Leib, W., Tryon, W. W., & Strobel, C. S. (1976). Alpha biofeedback: Fact or artifact? Psychophysiology, 13, 541-545.

    Tryon, G. S., & Tryon, W. W. (1976). Some properties of the Ego-Resiliency-Subtle scale of the MMPI. Journal of Personality Assessment, 40, 18-20.


    Aranow, E., Reznikoff, M., & Tryon, W. W. (1976). The interpersonal distance of process and reactive schizophrenic males. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 43, 94.

    Tryon, W. W. (1975). Language behavior therapy: A second reply to Staats. Behavior Therapy, 6, 564-565.

    Tryon, W. W. (1975). Pupillometry: A survey of sources of variation. Psychophysiology, 12, 90-93.

    Tryon, W. W. (1974). A reply to Staat's Language Behavior therapy: A derivative of social behaviorism. Behavior Therapy, 5, 273-276.

    Tryon, W. W., & Tryon, G. S. (1974). Desensitization and demand characteristics. Behavior Therapy, 5, 297-298.


    Gligor, A. M., & Tryon, W. W. (1973). An evaluation of the integration of male and female patients in a psychiatric hospital. Newsletter for Research in Mental Health and Behavioral Sciences, 3, 18-19.


    Tryon, W. W., & Radzin, A. E. (1972). Purpose-in-life as a function of ego resiliency, dogmatism, and biographical variables. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 39, 282-285.

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