Skip to main content


3.2 Grading System

The University grading system includes both grades that can be given only by the instructor of the course and grades that can be given only by other offices, most notably the dean's office and the Office of Academic Records.

3.2.1 Grades Given by Course Instructors

The most common grades given by instructors are letter grades representing levels of academic achievement. These letter grades, their description, and their quality points are indicated below.

Intpretation of Indivdual Letter Grades
Letter Grade Quality Description Points
A Excellent; honors-level work, outstanding 4.00
A- Still excellent 3.67
B+ Very good; high level of performance 3.33
B Good; solid and above average level 3.00
B- Good; still above average 2.67
C+ Average level of performance 2.33
C Satisfactory; acceptable level of performance 2.00
C- Minimally acceptable 1.67
D Passing, but unsatisfactory; below average performance 1.00
F Failure; inferior performance 0.00

While circumstances may vary, a consistent pattern of giving predominantly very high grades will be viewed with concern. Grade inflation hurts students by undermining the University's reputation with graduate and professional schools. For further information on grades, visit and select Explanation of Grades/Transcript. It is the discretion of the instructor to assign a percentage range to a letter grade (e.g., 93 percent to 100 percent for an A). Such assignments should be clearly noted on the syllabus.

3.2.2 Other Grades Given by Course Instructors

A. NGR: No Grade Reported for Pending Academic Integrity Violation Cases
When a student chooses to challenge an Academic Integrity Violation, they will receive a NGR by their instructor until notified by the chair of the relevant Academic Integrity Committee.

B. P or F^: Pass or fail, for courses taken on a Pass/Fail basis
Sophomores, juniors, and seniors are allowed to register for one elective course per year on a Pass/Fail basis. Credit will be granted for a passing grade, and no credit awarded for a failing grade. Since there is no numerical equivalent, as noted above for grades representing academic performance, the grade is not computed in the student's GPA index.

No courses used to fulfill a core, major, or minor program requirement may be taken on a P/F basis. Once chosen, the P/F option cannot be rejected in anticipation of a high letter grade; conversely, the likelihood of a low letter grade is not grounds for a belated request for a P/F. In order to take a course on a P/F basis, the approval of the appropriate class dean or associate dean is required.

C. ABS: Absence from Final Examination
If a student does not appear for the final exam without prior arrangement with the instructor, the instructor should report a grade of ABS (rather than an INC). An ABS can also be awarded for a student who has made arrangements with the instructor to miss the final exam due to illness or a death in the family. Such absence may be excused only for illness, personal emergency, or some special contingency. Written documentation of the reason for the absence must be provided to the class dean or associate dean within five University working days of the examination date. In the case of illness, an official doctor's note should be provided; in other situations, a written explanation by the student will be sufficient. This documentation will be used to determine whether approval of the request for a deferred examination will be granted. If the request is approved, the deferred examination must be completed by the date specified on the academic calendar, otherwise the ABS will be changed automatically to an F. If the request is rejected, then a grade of F should be recorded as the grade for the final examination. The instructor will then be asked to submit a final course grade, utilizing the Change of Grade workflow accessed through Banner Self-Service in the Faculty tab of

D. INC: Incomplete Course Assignments, Excluding Final Examination
When course requirements other than just the final exam have not been met, the instructor may report a temporary grade of INC. This process should be initiated with the student's class dean or advising dean as early as possible. FCRH, FCLC, and PCS students must fill out an Undergraduate Petition for Grade of Incomplete (available from their advising dean). The grade of INC will not be allowed unless the petition is on file. In GSB, students should contact their class dean to initiate this procedure.

If the requirements are not completed by the date specified on the academic calendar, the INC will be changed automatically to an F. To avoid this, instructors should use the Change of Grade workflow accessed through Banner Self-Service in the Faculty tab of

No grade of INC may be awarded to seniors in their final semester without the express permission of the senior dean, and then only under extreme circumstances.

F. AF: Failure for excessive absences in a course (used in PCS only)
This mark is equivalent to an academic performance of F with the additional information that this F is associated with excessive absence in the course.

G. S or U: Satisfactory or unsatisfactory, for courses taken on a Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory basis
These grades are used only for zero-credit courses.

H. WF: Withdrawal Failure
If a student never officially withdrew from your course and simply stopped attending, you can award a WF if you have also entered the last day of attendance for that student.

3.2.3 Grades Given by Deans and Academic Records

A. W and WF: Withdrawal or Withdrawal Failure
Instructors do not award grades of W. Only deans award a grade of W (withdrawal without academic penalty) when the student withdraws from a course with the dean's permission before the deadline stipulated in the academic calendar. A WF (withdrawal with academic penalty- F is calculated into the student's GPA index) may be given when the student ceases to attend a course without formal approval from the dean's office. See section 1.2 for details.

B. NGR: No Grade Reported
When a grade is left blank by the instructor, the Office of Academic Records will record a grade of NGR.

C. IP: In Progress
When a course is part of a yearlong sequence or else clearly continues beyond a single semester, the Office of Academic Records enters IP on the first semester and continuing semesters until the work is completed.